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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
list average normal weight of heart
male-300-350 g, female-250-300 g
list the average normal right and left ventricular free wall thickness
right 0.3-0.5 and left 1.3-1.5
list the four cardiac valves
semilunar-aortic and pulmonary, artioventricular valves-mitral and tricuspid
what attaches the papillary muscles to teh atrioventricular valve leaflets
chordae tendineae
normally the pericardial sac contains
30-50ml of fluid
the coronary arteries orginate from
the aorta immediately distal to the aortic valve
left anterior descending supplies most of the apex of the heart, anterior wall of left ventricle and the anterior 2/3 of ventricular septum
left circumflex perfuses the lateral wall of the left ventricle
right coronary artery entire right ventricle posterobasal wall of left ventricle and posterior third ventricular septum
congestive heart failure
heart is unable to pump blood at a rate commesurate with the requirement of metabolizing tissues or can do so only from elevated filling pressure
most frequent causes of congestive heart failure
hypertension, ischemic heart disease
the two major types of congestive heart failure
left and right sided
cor pulmonale
pure right sided heart failure that most often occurs with chronic severe pulmonary hypertension
left sided heart failure is often caused by
ischemic heart disease hypertension, aortic and mitral valvular disease and nonischemic myocardial disease
generalized massive edema
clincal manifestations of ischemic heart disease
myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, chronic ischemic heart disease with heart failure, sudden cardiac death
transmural myocardial infarction
ischemic necrosis invloves the full or nearly full thickness of the ventrical wall in the distribution of a singel coronary artery
subendocardial infarct
ischemic necrosis limited to hte inner 1/3 or at most 1/2 of ventricular wall may extend laterally beyond pefusion of a single coronary artery
ischemic cardiomyopathy
often used by clinicians to describe crhonic ischemic heart disease
angina pectoris
symptom of complex ischemic heart diease characterized by paroxysomal and recurrent attacks of substernal or precordial chest discomfort
the majority of myocaridal infarct occur in
the left ventricle
Triphenyltertazolium chlroide
stain used to macroscopically differntiate ischemic vs nonischemic areas of mycoardium
the most classic clincal symptoms of acute myocardial infaction
rapid weak pulse diaphoresis and dyspnea
the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease is characterized by
coexistence of atherosclerosis of coronary arteries and hypertorphy of myocaridum
the minimal criteria for the diagnosis of hypertensive heart disease
left ventricular hypertrophy and history of pathologic evidence of hypertension
Rheumatic fever
acute immunologically mediated multisystem inflammatory disease that occrus a few weeks after an episode of grp A streptococcal pharyngitis
acute rheumatic carditis
complicates phase of rheumatic feer may progress to chronic valvular deformities
characterstic microscopic finding in rheumatic fever are
Aschoff bodies and Anitschkow cells
the most common valves involved in rheumatic heart disease
mitral and aortic
Rheumatic vegetations are most commonly located on what part of the valve
the chordae tendineae in rheumatic fever frequently appear
shortened thickeed and fused
briefly describe the changes seen in joints and skin in rheumatic fever
migratory polyarthritis of the large joints subcutaneous nodules, Erythema marginatum of the skin
the most important consequences of rheumatic fever is
chornic rheumatic heart disease characterized by deforming fibrotic valvular disease
what is the most common encountered congential cardiac malformation
ventricular septal defect
msot congenital anomalies of the heart develop during whawt weeks of fetal life
3 through 8
the most common complication and or cause of death in patients with ventricular septal defects is
irreversible pulmonary vascular disease-pulomnary hypertension
major types of atrial septal defects
Secundum ASD, primum ASD, partial AVSD, sinus venous ASD
some of the most common complications of atrial septal defects are
irrevrsible pulmonary hypertension, heart failure, paradoxial embolization
transposition of great vessels
implies ventriculoarterial discordance such that the aorta arises from right ventricle and pulmonary artery emanates from the left ventricle
the most common form of cyanotic congential heart failure
tetraology of Fallot
four feature of tetraology of Fallot are
ventricular septal defect subpulmonic stenosis aorta that overrides the VSD,and right ventricular hypertrophy
ductus arteriosus is situated btwn which two blood vessels?
Pulmonary artery and aorta and is remnant of the 6th arotic arch
infantile coarctation of the aorta
tubual hypoplasia of the aortic arch proximal to a patent ductus arteriosus that is often symptomatic in early childhood
adult coarctation of aorta
discrete ridgelike infolding of the aorta just opposite the closed ductus arteriosus
infective endocarditis
colonization or invasion of heart valves mural endocardium or other cardiovascular sites by microbial agent
acute endocarditis
destructive tumultous infection frequently of previously normal heart valve with a highly virulent organism
infective endocarditis of native but previously damaged abnormal valves is most commonly caused by
alpha-hemolytic sterptococci
classic lesion in infective endocarditis is
vegetation of the valve cusps that can extend on to the cords
acute cor pulmonale
much dilatation of the right ventricle without hypertrophy can follow massive pulmonary embolism
chronic cor pulmanle
implies right ventricular hypertrophy and dilatation secondary to prolonged pressure overload due to obstruction of pulmonary arteries or arterioles
caridac temponade
large chronic effusions or rapidly developing fluid collections of as little as 200-300ml may produce compression of thin walled atria and vena cava or the ventricles themselves
serous pericarditis
produced by non-infectious inflammations such as rheumatic fever SLE scleroderma
renal failure with associated uremia gives rise to
fibrinous pericarditis
heart disease resulting from a primary abnormality in the myocardium
inflammatory processes of the myocardium that result in the injury to the cardiac myocytes
three catagories of cardiomyopathy
dialted cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, restrictive cardiomyopathy
what are the most characterstic histologic findings of hypertorphic cardiomyopathy
myocyte hypertrophy, myofiber disarray, intestial and replacement fibrosis
ednocardial fibroelastosis
focal or diffuse fibroelastic thickening usually involving the mural left ventricular endocardium often accompanied by some form of congenital caridac anomaly most often aortic valve obstruction
nonbacterial endocarditis
deposition of small masses of fibrin, platelets and other blood components on the leaflets of cardiac valves they do not contain microorganisms and are only loosely attached to underlying valve
Libman-Sacks endocarditis
mitral and tricuspid valvulitis with small sterile vegetations
list clinical features of carcinoid syndrome
episodic flushing of the skin, cramps, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea
the most common primary tumor of the heart is
Myxoma is most common in the
left atrium
the most frequent primary tumor of the heart in infants and children is
what are the two most common cuases for cardiac transplantion
dialted cardiomyopathy and ischemic heart disease