Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/74

Click to flip

74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
arteries are divided into catagories based on
size and structural function
list the three catagories of arteries
Large or elastic arteries, Medium size or muscular arteries, small arteries
list three layers of any artery in the body
intima, media and adventitia
a single layer of cells that line both arteries and veins are
endothelial cell layer
developmental weakness in the cerebral vessels in and about the circle of willis is
Berry aneurysm
abnormal communications between arteries and veins are known as
arteriovenous fistulas
arteriovenous fistulas may result in
rupture of an arterial aneurysm into the adjacent vein from penetrating injuries that peirce the walls of artery and produce and artifical communication
atherosclerosis
formation of intimal plaques that often have a gummous core rich in lipid
Monckeberg Medial Calcific Necrosis
clacific deposits in medium sized muscular arteries in persons older then 50 yrs
Arteriolosclerosis
small arteries and arterioles hyaline and hyperplastic cause thickening of vessl walls with luminal narrowing that may induce downstream ischemic injury
atherosclerosis
characterized by intimal lesions called atheromas or fibrofatty plaques that protrude into the lumen weaken the underlying media and undergo a series of complications
complications of atherosclerosis
myocardial infarction, cerebral infarction, aortic aneurysm, gangrene of legs, mesenteric occlusion, chronic ischemic heart disease
list epidemiologic factors associated with development of atherosclerosis
increasing age, male gender, family history, genetic abnormalities, hyperlipidemia, hypertension
what is the major component of total serum cholesterol that is associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis
Low density lipoprotein LDL
what is the most important risk factor in coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular accident
hypertension
arteries are divided into catagories based on
size and structural function
list the three catagories of arteries
Large or elastic arteries, Medium size or muscular arteries, small arteries
list three layers of any artery in the body
intima, media and adventitia
a single layer of cells that line both arteries and veins are
endothelial cell layer
developmental weakness in the cerebral vessels in and about the circle of willis is
Berry aneurysm
abnormal communications between arteries and veins are known as
arteriovenous fistulas
arteriovenous fistulas may result in
rupture of an arterial aneurysm into the adjacent vein from penetrating injuries that peirce the walls of artery and produce and artifical communication
atherosclerosis
formation of intimal plaques that often have a gummous core rich in lipid
Monckeberg Medial Calcific Necrosis
clacific deposits in medium sized muscular arteries in persons older then 50 yrs
Arteriolosclerosis
small arteries and arterioles hyaline and hyperplastic cause thickening of vessl walls with luminal narrowing that may induce downstream ischemic injury
atherosclerosis
characterized by intimal lesions called atheromas or fibrofatty plaques that protrude into the lumen weaken the underlying media and undergo a series of complications
complications of atherosclerosis
myocardial infarction, cerebral infarction, aortic aneurysm, gangrene of legs, mesenteric occlusion, chronic ischemic heart disease
list epidemiologic factors associated with development of atherosclerosis
increasing age, male gender, family history, genetic abnormalities, hyperlipidemia, hypertension
what is the major component of total serum cholesterol that is associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis
Low density lipoprotein LDL
what is the most important risk factor in coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular accident
hypertension
what are the two types of hypertension and relative frequencies of each?
Essential or primary 95% and secondary 5%
what are the possible causes of secondary hypertension
renal disease, endocrine abnormalities, cardiovascular,, neurologic
examples of Direct infection vasculitis
bacterial, fungal, viral, Rickettsial, spirochetal
three major types of vasculitis
Direct infection, Immunologic, Unknown
list and describe most common pathologic findings of infectious arteritis
mycotic aneurysm-vascular infections may weaken the arterial wall and result in the formation of a mycotic aneurysm
aneursymal dilatation of the ascending and thoracic aorta occurs as the result of what specific form of arteritis
obliterative endarteritis of vasa vasorum
define giant cell arteritis and give another more common term for the disease
Temporal arteritis most common of vasculitides is an acute and chronic often granulomatous inflammation of medium sized and small arteries
what clinical marker is found in the serum of 90% of patients with Wegners granulomatosis
C-ANCA
Buerger disease is also known as
Thromboagiitis obliterans
Buerger disease is characterized by
segmental thrombosing acute and chronic inflammation of medium and small arteries principally the tibial and radial arteries
vascular changes associated with Buerger disease are
sharply segmental acute and chronic vasculitis of medium and small arteries with secondary spread to contiguous veins and nerves
Raynaud disease
paroxysmal pallor of cyanosis of the digits of the hands or feet and infrequently the tips of nose and ears cased by intense vasospams of local small arteries
Raynaud phenomenon
arterial insuffciency of the extremities secondary to arterial narrowing induced by various conditions including SLE scleroderma athersclerosis or Buerger diesease
aneurysm
an aneurysm is localized abnormal dilation of a blood vessel that occurs most commonly in the aorta or the heart
what are the two most important causes of true arotic aneurysms
atheroclerosis and cystic medial degeneration
true aneurysm
bounded by generally complete but often attenuated arterial wall components blood remains within confines of circulatory system
false aneurysm
pseudoaneurysm-extravascular hematoma that communicates with the intravascular space the wall has been breached and the aneurysmal sac consists of only outer arterial layers
the most common pathologic finding in dissecting aneurysms
an intimal tear that extends into but not through the media of the ascending aorta usually within 10cm of the arotic valve
TypeA dissecting aneurysms
TypeA-more common and devastating proximal lesions invloving either the ascending portion or both the ascending and descending aorta
TypeB disscting aneurysms
distal lesions not involving the ascending part and usually beginning distal to the subclavian artery
what is the hereditary disorder in which patients have high predilection for dissecting aneurysms and sudden death
Marfan Syndrome
varicose veins
abnormally dilated tortuous veins produced by prolonged increased intraluminal pressure and loss of support of the vessel wall
two types of varicose veins
Esophageal varices and hemorrhoids
what are the two most common factors associated with the development of varicose veins
Posture and familial tendency
list some of the more debilitating consequences of varicose veins
development of persistent edema in the extremity and trophic changes in the skin that lead to stasis dermatitis and ulcerations
thrombophlebitis
venous thrombosis
the most common site for the development of thrombophlebitis is
DLV deep leg veins
what are the clincal predispositions to thrombophlebitis
cardiac failure, neoplasia, obesity, postoperative state, prolonged bed rest or immobilization
superior vena cava syndrome
obstruction of the superior vena cava caused by neoplasms that compress or invade the s vena cava moist commonly a primary bronchogenic carcinoma or mediastinal lymphoma
the most common causes of inferior vena cava syndrome
neoplams, propagated thrombus form femoral or iliac veins
obstructive lymphedema
occlusion of lymphatic drainage is followed by the abnormal accumulation of interstial fluids in the affected part
most common causes of obstructive lymphedema
malignant tumors, radical surgical procedures, post irradiation fibrosis, filariasis, post inflammatory thrombosis
what are complications caused by rupture of obstructed dilated lymphatics into the peritoneum and pleural cavity
Chylous acites, chylothorax, chylopericardium
pyogenic granuloma
polypoid form of capillary hemangioma that occurs as a rapidly growing exophytic red nodule attached by a stalk to the skin and gingival or oral mucosa
telangiectasia
group of abnormally prominent capillaries venules and arterioles that create a small focal red lesion
three types of vascular ectasia
Nevus flammeus, spider telangiectasia, hereditary hemorrhagic tealngiectasia
the two most common forms of hemangioma
capillary hemagioma, cavernous hemangioma
cystic hygroma
cavernous lymphangioma is characterized by carvernous lymphatic spaces in the axilla or neck associated with turner syndrome
glomus tumor
bilogically benign but painful tumor that arises form modified smooth muscle cells of the glomus body
hemangioendothelioma
denotes vascular neoplasms showing histologic features and clinical behavior intermediated btwn beging and anaplastic angiosacromas
hemangiopericytoma
derived from pericytes the cells normally arranged along capillaries and venules-rare most common on lower extremities
an intermediate grade vascular tuomr often seen in AIDs patients
Kaposi sarcoma
malignant hemagiomas are also known as
angiosarcoma and hemangiosarcoma
hepatic angiosarcomas are associated with which chemical carinogens
arsenic, thorotrast and polyvinyl chloride