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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
name the catagories of human infectious agents
prions, viruses, bacteriophages, plasmids, transposons, bacteria, chlamydiae, rickettsia, mycoplasmas, fungi, protozoa, helminthes, ectoparasites
the virulence of a microbial organism relates to its abiliity to
adhere to host cells, invade cells and tissues and deliver toxic moieties
name the three lines of natural defense to virulent micororganisms
intact host skin, intact mucosal surfaces, and their secretory-excretory products
bacteria in the blood
sustained bloodstream invasion and dissemination of pathogens manifested by fever low arterial pressure and other systemic signs and symptoms of septis
mcirobial disease occuring in a predisposed individual is termed
opportunistic infection
a hospital acquired microbial disease is known as
nosocomial infection
the process of pus formation, charactrized by predominantly neutrophilic inflammation, caused by the presence of pyogenic microorganisms
name the three types of pyogenic microorganisms
Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Sterptococcus henmolyticus
focal supporative inflammation of the skin and subcutaneous tissue either solitary or multiple or recurrent in successive crops
associated with deeper supppuration that spreads laterally beneath the deep subcutaneous fascia and then burrows superficially to erup in multiple adjacent skin sinuses
osteomyelitis is frequently caused by what microorganism
Staphylococcus aureus
most cases of lobar pneumonia are caused by what organism
Streptococcus pneumoniae
purulent pleural exudate
the greatest number of uncomplicated urinary tract infections is caused by what specific organims?
Escherichia coli
the most characterstic histologic hallmark of Mycobacterium infection is
caseating granuloma
what is the type of mycobacterial organisms that recieve the designation acid fast organisms?
mycobacteria are anerobic nonspore forming nonmotile bacilli with a waxy coat that cuases them to retain the red dye when treated with acid in the acid fast stains
what are the constituent parts associated with a primary tuberculosis infection and what is the eponym describing these parts?
The ultimate residum of the primary infection is a calcified scar in the lung parenchyma and in the hilar lymph nodes together referred to as the Ghon Complex
Miliary tuberculosis is
Hematogenous dissemination or tuberculous lesion throughout the body
the most common incidental autopsy finding associated an old tuberculous infection is
fibrocalcified nodule
Syphilis is caused by what microorganism and what is the morphology of this organism?
Treponema pallidum is the microaerophilic spirochete that causes syphilis
primary stage of syphilis
occurs 3 weeks after contact with an infected individual features single firm nontender raised red lesion located at the site of temponemal invasion it heals within a few weeks
secondary stage of syphilis
occurs 2-10weeks after the primary chancre is characterized by a diffuse rash, particullary of the palms and soles that may be accompained by white oral lesions fever and lymphadenopthy
tertiary stage of syphillis
occurs years after the primary lesion is characterized by either active inflammatory lesion of the aorta, hear and CNS or by lesions of the liver, bone and skin
the histologic hallmark of the inflammmatory reaction associated with syphilis
intense infiltrate of plasma cells with scattered macrophages and lymphocytes and an obliterative endarteritis
although rarely seen today what is the most common complication of tertiary syphilis
gas gangrene is caused by what microorganism
Clostridium pefringens
clostridium pefringens is especially virulent in deep wound infection because
gram positive bacillus that grows under anerobic conditions
name three types of herpes virus
Herpes simplex 1 and 2, Cytomegalovirus, Varicella Zoster virus
Name two types of slow virus infection
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy-JC virus, Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis-measles virus
Candidiasis of the oral cavity is known as
Nonseptate irregulary wide fungal hyphea with frequent right angle branching causing oppurtunstic infections are commonly refered to as
two special stains most frequently ordered for hte indetificaiton of fungi are
Silver Stain and Periodic acid Schiff (PAS)
tangled masses of mycelia and Aspergillus within pulmonary abscess cavities are known as
fungus balls
pulmonary target lesions of necrotizing penumonia with sharply delineated round gray foci and hemorraghic borders are
target lesions
fungal infection by Coccidioides prominent in the SW US characterized by lung lesions fever cough and pleuritic pain and erythema nodosum is
San Joaquin Valley fever
yellow granules often seen on the cut surface of the hypertrophic tonsils are known as
Sulfur granules-actiomyces
the most common fungal infection of patients with AIDS
Pneumocystis carinii
pinworm disease is caused by what helminth
Enterobius vermicularis
lympphedema resulting from obstruction of the lymphatics by filarial worms is known as
Parasitic cysts frequently encountered in the liver are caused by what parasite?
Echinococcus granulosus
the classic histoligc change in sarcoidosis is?
noncaseating granulomas
sarcoidosis is more common in what racial group
American Blacks
ovarall lack of calories, a marasmic child suffers growth retardation and loss of muscle the loss of muscle results from catabolism and depletion of the somatic protein comparment
lack of protein despite a sufficient caloric intake it is characterized by peripheral edema, subcutaneous fat and enlarged fatty liver
night blindness is usually due to a deficiency of what vitiman?
Vitamin A
Name the three clinical findings associated with Vitamin D deficiency?
frontal bossing of the head, rachitic rosary widened ribs, bowing of the legs
a deficiency of Vitamin K results in decreased levels of what clotting factors in the blood?
Vitamin D defficiency results in a condition known as
Rickets in children and Osteomalacia in adults
folate deficiency results in a condition known as
megaloblastic anemia also results in neural tube defects
a deficiency of Vitamin B12 results in a condition known as
combined system disease
massively obese individuals who have reduced total volume and suffer from carbon dioxide retnetion and somnolence suffer from the
hypoventilation or pickwickian syndrome
lung disease induced by organic as well as inorganic particulates and chemical fumes and vapors
give the most common benign form penumoconiosis seen in autopsy pathology
what considering the diagnosis of asbestosis the finding of what is necessary
abesstos bodies with in the lung tissue they can be identified by Iron or Prussian Blue stain
the important determinates in the causation of pneumoconisosis are
amount of dust retained in the lungs and airways, size shape and buoyancy of the particles, particle solubility and possible additional effects of other irritants
the ingestion of ethyl alcohol its prime toxic effect after absorption by oxidation to acetaldehyde in
the gastric mucosa and the liver
if a patient comes to autopsy whose skin is bright cherry red and multiple petechiae are noted throughout the cerbral hemisphers the possibility of what should be considered
Carbon poisoning
the most characterstic hematologic finding of patients with lead poisoning is
microcytic hypochromic anemia with punctate basophillic stippling of erythorcytes
name several possible complication or oral contraceptive use
breast CA, thromboembolism, hypertensionh, hepatic adenoma
basically a scrape in which the supeficial epidermis is torn off by friction or force
irregular tear in the skin produced by overstretching it may be linear or stellate depending on the tearing focre
acute gastroduodenal ulceration associated with burns are known as
stress ulcers