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44 Cards in this Set

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what are the four type so fimmunologis disorders
hypersensitivity reactions, autoimmune disease, immunologic deficiency syndromes, amyloidosis
hypersensitivty reactions can be initiated by
interactions of antigen with humoral antibody or cell mediated immune mechanism
Type I hypersensitivity
anaphylactic type-anaphylaxis, some forms of bronchial asthmas
Type II hypersensitivity
cytoxic type-autoimmune hemolytic anemia, Goodpasture syndrome
Type III hypersensitivity
immune complex disease-arthus reaction, serum sickness, systemic lupus erythematosus
Type IV hypersensitivity
cell mediated-tuberculosis, contact dermatitis, transplant rejection
4 primary mediators of anaphylactic hypersensitivity
biogenic amines, chemotactic mediators, enzymes, proteoglycans
4 secondary mediator of anaphylactic hypersensitivity
leukotrines, prostaglandin D2, platelet activating factor, cytokines
common inciting agents to systemic anaphylaxis and give some clinical sypmtoms of this reaction
inciting agents-heterologous proteins, hormones, enzymes, polysaccharides and drugs. symptoms-itiching, hives, laryngeal edema, vomiting, abdominal cramps
atopy
genetically determined predisposition to develop localized anaphylactic reactions to inhaled or ingested allergens
inciting agents of atopy
pollen, animal dander, house dust, fish
symptoms of atopy
urticaria, angioedema, allergic rhinitis, some forms of asthma
immune complex reaction
mediated hypersensitiivty reactions is induced by antigen-antibody complexes that produce tissue damage as a result of their capacity to activate that complement system
3 phases of systemic immune complex disease
formation of antigen antibody complexes in circulation, deposition of the immune comples in various tissues, inflammatory reaction in dispersed sites throughout body
Arthus reaction
defined as localized areas of tissue necrosis resulting from acute immune complex vasculities
cell mediated hypersensitivity
initiated by specifically sensitized T lymphocytes, it includes classic delayed type hypersensitivity reaction initiated by CD4 cells and direct cell cytotoxity mediated by CD8 T Cells
two major types of cell mediated hypersensitivity
delayed type hypersensitivity, Tcell mediated cytotoxicity
what are the two mechanisms involved in transplant rejection
T-cell mediated reactions, antibody-mediated reactions
hyperacute rejection
occurs within minutes or hours after transplantation and can sometimes be recognized by surgeon just after the graft vasculature is anastomozed to the recipients
acute rejection
occurs within days of transplantation in the untreated recipient or may appear suddenly months or even years later after immunosuppression has been employed and terminated
acute cellular rejection
most commonly seen within the initial months after transplantation and is heraleded by an elevation or serum creatinine levels followed by clincial signs or renal failure
acute rejection vasculitis
mediated primarily by antidonor antibodies and hence it is manifested by damage to blood vessels
chronic rejection
present clincially with a progressive rise in serum creatinine level over a period of 4-6months dominated by vascular changes, interstial fibrosis and loss of renal parenchyma
describe mechanism behind graft vs host disease
gaft vs host disease occurs in any situation in which immunologically competent cells or their precursors are transplanted into immunological crippled recipients
Systemic Lupus Erthyematosus
SLE is classic prototype of they multisystem disease of autoimmune origin, characterized by an array of autoantibodies particualarly antinuclear antibodies
Sjorgens syndrome
clinicopathologic entity characterized by dry eyes, and dry mouth, resulting from immunologicallly mediated destruction of the lacrimal and salivary glands
systemic sclerosis
excessive deposition of collagen, the hallmark of systemic sclerosis results from multiple factorsthat ultimatley lead to production of variety of firborblast growth factors
inflammatory myopathy
comprimes uncommon heterogeneous groups of disorders characterized by immunolgical mediated injury and inflammation of mainly skeletal muscles
3 types of inflammatory myopathies
dermatomyositis, polymyositis, inclusion-body myositis
polyarterites nodosa
belongs to a group of disease characterized by nercotizing inflammation of the walls of blood vessels and showing strong evidence of an immunologic pahtogeneic mechanism
DiGeorge Syndrdome
example of T cell deficiency that derives from failure of development of the 3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouches leading to thymic hypoplasia
Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrom
X-linked recessive disease characterized by thrombocytopenia, eczema and a marked vulnerability to recurrent infection ending in early death
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
retroviral disease characterized by profound immunosuppression that leads to opportunistic infections, seocndary neoplasms and neurologic manifesations
amyloidosis
group of diseases having in common the deposition or pathologic proteinaceous substance in various tissues and organs of the body in wide variety of clincal settings
cancers arising from mesenchymal tissues are called
sarcomas
cancers arising form epithelial tissues are
carcinomas
all tumors benign and malignant are composed of what two basic components
parenchyma and supporative stroma
what are the criteria used to determine whether a tumor is begnin or malignant?
differentiation and anaplasia, rate of growth, local invasion, metastasis
what are the three pathways of cnacer dissemination
direct seeding of body cavities or surfaces, lymphatic spread, hematogenous spread
the most common pathway for th intial spread of cacrinomas
lymphatic spread
tumor grading
based on the degree of differentiation of the tumor cells and the number mitosis wthin in the tumor as presumed correlates of the neoplasms aggressiveness
staging of cancers
based on the size of the primary lesion its extent of spread to regional lymph nodes and the presence or abscence of blood borne metastisis
which DNA viruses are thought to be capable of inducing neoplastic transformation
papillomaviruses, Epstein Barr virus, hepatitis B virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus
paraneoplastic syndromes
symptom complexes in cancer bearing patients that cannot readily be explained either by the local or distant spread of the tumor or by the elaboration of hromones indigenous to the tissue from which the tumor arose