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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cells which are actively engaged in protein synthesis are rich in which intracytoplasmic organelle?
an increase in cell number
an increase in cell size
a decrease in size and function fo cells
an alteration of cell differentation
a pigment that is frequently confused with hemosiderin and represents autophagic cellular debris
disordered growth, changes include a loss in uniformity of the individual cells as well as loss in their architectural orientation
cell death after exogneous stimuli such as ischemia,physical or chemical injury
cell death through activation of internally controlled suicide program
loss of blood supply from impeded arterial flow or reduced venous drainage in a tissue
impinges on aerobic oxidative respiration inadequate oxygenation of the blood due to cardiorespiratory failure may result in call adaptation injury or death
the first known manifestation of almost all forms of injury to individual cells
cellular swelling
nuclear shrinkage and increase basophilia
change that presumably reflects DNase activity in which basophilia of the chromatin may fade
when pyknotic or partially pyknotic nucleus undergoes fragmentation
coagulation necrosis
implies preservation of the basic outline of the coagulated cell the injury denatures not only structual proteins but also enzymic and blocks protelysis of the cell
liquifcation necrosis
dominant enzyme digestion, end result is transformation of the tissue into a liquid viscous mass
what is fat necrosis and what organ is it most frequently seen?
fat destruction due to release of lipases often seen in pancreas
caseous necrosis is frequently associated with what type of infection?
what stains would be used to differnetiate glycogen from fat?
GLYCOGEN-best carmine and PAS with and without diastase
FAT-Sudan IV and ORedO
condition in which hemosiderin is deposited in many organs and tissues without parenchymal damage
extreme accumulation of iron associated with liver and pancreatic damage resulitn in fibrosis heart failure
dystrophic calcifications
calcium deposition occurs locally in nonviable or dying tissues
metastatic calcification
deposition of clacium salts in vital tissues almost always reflects some disturbance in calcium metabolism leading to hypercalcemia
inflammatory extravascular fluid that has a high protein concentration and cellular debris
a fluid low in protein content it is an ultrafiltrate of blood plasma and results from hydrostatic imbalance across vascular endothelium
name four stages of leukocyte extravasation
rolling, activation, adhesion, transmigration
name the three changes associated with inflammatory reaction
alteration in vascular caliber to increase blood flow, structural changes in the microvascular that permit plasma and leukocytes to lave the microcirculation, emigration of leukocytes from the microciruclation to focus of injury
name the five clincal signs associated with inflammation
redness, swelling, heat, pain and loss of function
acute inflammatory response
leukocytes, mainly neutrophils
chronic inflammatory response
mononuclear cells including macrophages, lymphocytes and plasma cells
serous inflammation
marked by outpouring of thin fluid that is derived from either blood serum or the secretions of mesothelial cells lining the peritoneal, pleural and pericardial cavites
fibrionous inflammation
develops when the vascular leaks are large enough to allow fibrin to pass through the vascular barrier
purulent inflammation
production of large amounts of pus or purulent exudate consisting of neutrophils necrotic cells and edema fluid
histologic hallmarks of chronic inflammation are?
infiltration iwht mononuclear cells, tissue destruction, healing by connective tissue replacementof damaged tissue
aggregation of macrophages that are transformed into epithelium like cells surrounded by a collar of mononuclear leukocytes, principally lymphocytes and occasionally plasma cells
common feature of inflammatory reactions especially those induced by bacterial infections, 15000-20000 cells/ml
leukemoid reaction
leukocyte count of 40000-100000, these extreme elevations are similar to white counts in leukemia
decreased number of circulationg white cells, encounterd in infections that overwhelm patients debilitated by cancer or TB
focal localized collections of purulent inflammatory tissue caused by suppuration buried in tissue, organ or a confined space
local defect or excavation of the surface of an organ or tissue that is produced by the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue
granulation tissue is composed of what histologic components
fibroblasts and vascular endothelial cells
generalized local edema is known as
list the pathophysiologic catagories od edema
increased hydrostatic pressure, reduced plasma osmotic pressure, lymphatic obstruction, sodium and water retention, inflammation
dependent edema
influenced by gravity and is characteristic of congestive heart failure particulary right sided
generalized pitting edema
more severe than dependent edema affects all parts of the body equally and is the result of renal dysfunction or nephrotic syndrome
active process resulting from augumented tissue inflow becasue of afteriolar dilation
passive process resulting from impaired outflow as in cardiac failure or localized venous obstruction
chronic passive congestion of the liver
nutmeg liver is the result of
what are the three components of Virchows triad
endothelial injury, stasis or turbulence of blood flow, blood hypercoagulability
minute 1-2mm hemorrhages into skin, mucous membranes or serosal surfaces
slightly larger greater then 3mm hemorrhages
larger 1 to 2cm subcutaneous hematomas (brusies)
a detached intravascular solid, liquid or gasesous mass carried by blood to a distant site is known as?
within thrombi alternating layres of fibrin and platelets intermixed with coagulated blood are
lines of Zahn
arterial thrombi
usually occlusive, firmly adherent to injured arterial wall and are gray-white and friable
venous thrombi
almost always occlusive and often creates a long cast of the wein lumen
name two colloquial trems used to describe post mortem clots
currant jelly, chicken fat
name the four pathways which a thrombus can evolve after initially forming
propagation, embolization, dissolution, organization and recanalization
the most common distant source of pulmonary emobli are
deep leg vein above the level of the knee
disseminated intravascular coagulation is also known as
consumption coagulopathy
embolic occulsion at the bifurcation of the main pulmonary artery is known as
saddle embolis
a left artial mural thrombus that results in a splenic infarct is a result of
systemic embolus
a chronic form of decompression sickness in which persisting gas emboli in the skeletal system lead to multiple foci of ischemic necorsis is
caisson disease
area of ischemic necrosis caused by occlusion of either arterial supply or the venous drainage in a particular tissue
red infarcts (hemorrhagic)
occur with venous occlusions in loose tissues that wer previously congested because of sluggish venous outflow
white infarcts (anemic)
occur with arterial occlusions or in solid organs where the solidity of the tissue limits the amount of hemorrahge that can seep into the area of ischemic necorsis from adjoing capillary beds
anemic infarcts are least common in
lungs and liver and are due to dual blood supplies
cardiogenic shock
results from myocardial pump failure
septic shock
caused by systemic microbial infection
hypovolemic shock
results from loss of blood or plasma volume
anaphylactic shock
initiated by a generalized IgE mediated hypersensitivity response and is associated with systemic vasodilatiion and increased vascular permability