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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
2 principal mechanisms by which vascular pathology results in disease
narrowing (stenosis) or complete obstruction of vessel lumens, either progressively (atherosclerosis) or precipitously (thrombosis, emboli)

weakening of vessel walls, leading to dilation/rupture
basic constituents of walls of blood vessels
endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, ECM (elastin, collagen, glycosaminoglycans)
3 concentric layers of blood vessels
endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, ECM (elastin, collagen, glycosaminoglycans)
blood vessels with highest blood pressure & thickest walls
3 types of arteries
elastic (aorta its large branches – innominate, subclavian, common carotid, iliac) - large

muscular (coronary & renal arteries) - medium-sized

small arteries & arterioles
the relative amount & configuration of the basic constituents differ along the arterial system owing to local adaptations to mechanical/metabolic needs (esp. in ECM & media)
elastic arteries: media rich in elastic fibers → expansion/recoil during systole/diastole; become progressively tortuous & dilated (ecstatic) with age
muscular arteries: media composed mainly of spirally arranged smooth muscle cells
muscular arteries & arterioles: vasoconstriction/vasodilation regulates regional blood flow/pressure
blood vessels considered principal points of physiological resistance to flow
blood vessels with an endothelial lining, but no media, adapted for rapid diffusion of substances between tissues & blood
blood vessels where vascular leakage & leukocyte exudation commonly occurs during inflammation
post-capillary venules
blood vessels predisposed to irregular dilation, easy penetration by tumors & inflammatory processes
arteries vs. veins (diameter, lumen size, thickness/organization of walls)
arteries: smaller diameters, smaller lumens, thicker/more organized walls
veins: larger diameters, larger lumens, thinner/less organized walls
thin-walled, endothelium-lined channels that serve as a drainage system for returning interstitial tissue fluid & inflammatory cells to the blood
constitutes an appropriate pathway for disease dissemination thru transport of bacteria & tumor cells to distant sites
lymphatic system
3 major processes that characterize blood vessel formation & remodeling
vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, arteriogenesis
de novo formation of blood vessels during embryogenesis involving vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) &recruitment of pericytes/smooth muscle cells (angiopoietin 1 binds to endothelial cell Tie2 receptors)
hemangioblast angiogenic precursors → endothelial cells → primitive vascular plexus → vascular system
process of new vessel formation in mature organism
a.k.a. neovascularization
process of remodeling of existing arteries in response to chronic changes in pressure/flow involving endothelial cell-derived factors & smooth muscle cell- derived factors
small arterioles arising from outside large & medium-sized vessels that course into the outer half to two-thirds of the media from the adventitia to nourish the vessels
vasa vasorum
("vessels of vessels"
outer limit of media of most arteries
external elastic lamina
dense elastic membrane that separates the intima from the media
internal elastic lamina
blood vessel layer consisting of a single layer of endothelial cells with minimal underlying subendothelial connective tissue
outpouchings in cerebral vessels due to congenital wall weakness that can cause fatal intracerebral hemmorhages if ruptured
developmental or berry aneurysms
abnormal communications between arteries & veins that bypass intervening capillaries
arteriovenous fistulas
focal irregular thickening & attenuation of arterial wall due to intimal & medial hyperplasia & fibrosis
fibromuscular dysplasia