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161 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Rupture of plasma membrane causes:
Rupture of what cell structure is a kind of Irreversible cell injury?
What are intermediate filaments and what part of the cell do they compose
The cytoskeleton is composed of what cell structures)?
Lysosomes are precursors of what type of cells
Heterophagosomes are developed from what cell structures?
What does the "ER" do, what is it called
the place where energy is produced (by mitochondria), and also the site of hormone synthesis in cells. It is differentiated into two types: rough and smooth; according to whether or not it has ribosomes attached to its surface.
What are mitochondria and what function do they perform in cells
Mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell and produce the energy to fun all the bodies functions. The have double membranees and are rich in oxidative enzymes to break down protein and change it into energy which can be released by the ER of the cell after it is synthesized inside the Mitochondria.
Give four terms which denote irreversible cell injury (terminology):
1. Apoptosis 2.pyknosis 3.karyorrhexis, 4. Karyolysis: are types of what in regards to cell pathology?
Give one example of a type of Reversible cell injury involving the vascular system:
Vascular degeneration is an example of what type of cell injury?
What is hypoxia and what are its consequences
a lack of oxygen absorption or nutrients in a cell, and cause the inhibition of ATP:
What happens when ATP production is inhibited?
1. An increase in lactic acid, 2. Degranulation (smoothing) of the ER, 3. Dilation of RER (Rough endo. Reticulum), 4. Swelling of the mitochondria: occurs when?
A commonly used antiseptic chemical which is an example of an oxygen radical is:
Hydrogen peroxide is considered what type of "radical"?
What gland is in a state of atrophy during childhood and adolescence
The Thyroid gland goes through what stage before adulthood?
What are the consequences of hypertrophy of cells
an abnormal increase in size of the cells and cause hypertension and enlargement of the heart ventricles:
What is an example of a type of metaplasia of cells
Cigarette smoke causes columnar cells to become squamous cells inside the lung (cell injury)
What is the pigment which causes hemolysis to occur when it accumulates abnormally in the Liver
Bilirubin is stored in which organ?
What type of necrosis is TB
Causeous necrosis is found in what organ?
What type of necrosis is myocardial infarction of the heart
Coagulation necrosis (blood stasis) is found in what organ?
What type of necrosis occurs in the Brain
Liquefactive necrosis (cells become liquid in quality) is found in what organ?
neutrophils are also called:
Nuclear leukocytes are also called:
What type of cells stain with both hematoxlyn and eosin
Neutrophils stain with what?
What type of cells fight bacteria?
Leukocytes perform what function?
What type of cells stain pink with eosin, and are most prominent with allergic reactions and parasitic inflammation/ infection
Eosinophils perform what function?
What cells develop into Mast cells, which medicated IgE reactions, i.e. hay fever
Basophiles mediated what type of reaction?
What cells are always present when there is chronic inflammation
Macrophages go to the site of what pathological change?
What do macrophages help form
granulomas at the site of infection are formed by what cells?
What cells are essential for the clotting of blood
Platelets perform what function in terms of bleeding?
Give 4 signs of inflammation:
1. Heat 2. Redness, 3. Swelling, 4. Pain are signs of:
What is the cause of Hyperemia
the dilation of the arterioles in the heart which absorb too many nutrients in a pathological process.
When histamines are released, what happens to the vascular system
There is increased vascular permeability when what substance is released in reactions?
What cell structure can lyzee thrombi
Plasmin can do what to thrombi?
What two enzymes are inhibited by Aspirin
Prostaglandin and Thromboxane are inhibited by what OTC drug?
What type of inflammation is strep throat characterized as
Fibrinous Inflammation is found in the:
What substance accumulations inside any abscess
Pus is found inside:
four cell structures compose a granulomas
1. Lymphocytes, 2. Macrophages, 3. Epithelium, 4. Giant cells are components of:
Are leukocytes present in a granuloma
not found in granulomas:
What physiological process most commonly interferes with healing
Infection at the site of injury: decreases the function of what?
What is the term for hyperthrophic scars (scars which have altered in size or shape from the original form)
Keloid scars: define
Give 3 types of "Type I Hypersensitive" reactions:
hay fever, dermatitis (atopic), anaphylaxis: examples of:
Give 5 examples of a "Type II Hypersensitivity" reaction:
Grave's disease (hyperthyroid), Myasthenia Gravis, Blood Transfusion, Hemolytic Anemia, Fetus to Mother Incompatibility Reaction: examples of:
Give 3 types of "Type III" reactions:
1. SLE (lupus), 2. Poly-Arteritis Nodosa (nodes in the arteries), 3. Serum sickness (reaction to blood serum): examples of:
Give 4 types of "Type IV" reactions
1. Contact dermatitis (i.e.. To latex), poison ivy, TB, skin graft vs. host
What type of reaction is considered a common complication of marrow transplants
Graft vs. Host reaction (rejection) is a complicated of what kind of transplant in humans?
What cell decreases after infection by the HIV virus
T-suppressor cell (cytotoxic lymphocytes) are decreased in a person with what disease?
What structure in a cell is responsible for producing antibodies
Plasma cells perform what function in regards to immunology?
What types of cells/ factors are present in a lymphokine
interferon, interleukins, tumor factors, colony factors: are present in what pathological structure?
What type of reaction is hay fever, (hint: IgE-mediated)
Hay fever is a "Type I" reaction and is mediated what chemical?
Mast cells have what attached to them
IgE is attached to which type of cell?
What type of disease is Grave's disease classified as, and what type of hypersensitivity reaction is it categorized as
classified as an Auto-immune disease of "Type II Hypersensitivity" category, and characterized by enlarged optic cavities
What is a transplant between twins called in terminology
Isograph (same tissue) is defined as:
Is AIDS considered an Auto-Immune disease, or a different type of disorder
not considered to be an Auto-Immune Disorder, which must be idiopathic in origin by definition, but rather an Acquired Deficiency Syndrome:
In what disease is there an increase of "ANA" and what type of hypersensitivy reaction is this disease
SLE (aka. Lupus) is a Type III Hypersensitivity reaction and is characterized by the presence of "ANA" as its pathology.
What is needed to diagnose the presence of AIDS
Antibodies to the HIV virus are present in a person who has developed the AIDS disease.
What is the difference between HIV infection and AIDS disease
One is passive infection without symptoms, while AIDS implies that the antibodies to the HIV virus have affected the T-suppressor cells and will injure the cells after this stage, causing disease.
What is a common disease associated with HIV and AIDS
Kaposi sarcoma (type of cancer)
What is Amyloid A and why is it formed in the body
Amyloid A is formed in response to infection and deposited in the rectum, liver, kidneys, and/or adrenals, but never the brain.
What is the term for a benign tumor in the liver
What is a malignant skin tumor called
Squamous cell carcinoma
What is an Adenocarcinoma
malignant tumor of breast/ Large Intestine is an Adenocarcinoma
Give three examples of Adenomas:
Benign-liver, benign-glands, polyps-intestines
Give the term for a brain tumor:
A Glioma is a malignant tumor composed of glial cells
Give three examples of sites of Sarcoma type tumors:
Malignant tumor in: -fatty tissue, -striated muscle, -cartilage
By what pathway do Lung tumors metastases to reach the Brain
Via the blood vessels
What type of tumor is present in the germ cells of ovaries
Teratomas are found in pathological germ cells of the ovaries.
What is a disease that involves the neoplasm of lymph nodes
Hodgkin's disease is characterized by the neoplasm (cell injury) of lymph nodes.
A malignant tumor in the liver contains what specific protein:
Alpha fetoprotein is present in malignant tumors.
What factors does a tumor secrete
Tumors secrete autocrine stimulation factors and other factors...
What does exposure to dyes cause over time
Cancer of the Urinary Bladder can be a result of long-term exposure to commercial dyes in factory workers.
Two common carcinogens in the environment which cause lung or skin cancer to develop today:
Cigarettes - lung cancer, UV light - skin cancer
What is the name of the virus which causes cervical cancer to develop
The HPV virus causes what common cancer?
What is the term for the tumor-suppressing gene
The Rb-1 gene suppresses the formation of:
Is the repair enzymes in DNA is defective, what condition results
Xero-Derma Pigment-Osum is the term for a defect in :
In which country is there the highest incidence of Stomach cancer today
Japan has the highest incidence of what type of cancer?
3 Auto.-Dominant Disorders
1. Marfan's Syn., 2. High cholesterol, 3. Neurofibromatosis what type of hereditary diseases?
4 Auto.-Recessive Disorders
1. Tay-Sachs Disease, 2. Cystic Fibrosis, 3. Lysosomal Lipid Disorder, 4. Phenylketonuria (urinary disorder involving phenylketocytes
3 X-linked Recessive Disorders:
1. Muscular Dystrophy, 2 Hemophilia, 3. Down's Syndrome ("fragile X") are what type of hereditary disease?
3 Multi-Factor Inherited Disorders:
1. Meningo-Myelocele, 2. Diabetes Mellitus, 3. Anencephaly are what type of hereditary disease?
Are the causes of congenital birth defects known or unknown
Of Unknown cause: congenital malformation
List four factors leading to TORCH:
1. Toxoplasmosis, 2. Rubella virus, 3. Cytomegalovirus virus, 4. Herpes virus are factors in what syndrome?
What syndrome cause the dilation of the lateral ventricles of the brain
TORCH syndrome, or hydrocephalus (Liquefactive necrosis) causes dilation of:
Familial (inherited) high cholesterol commonly leads to what disorder
Atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) is a secondary symptom of what congenital disease?
Hemophilia A is what type of hereditary disease
X-linked type genetic disease characterized by bleeding.
What is the medical term used in place of "mental retardation"
Fragile-X Chromosome is the term for what congenital disorder?
When newborns have meconium peritonitis as an inherited trait, what disease have they inherited
Cystic Fibrosis is a Autosomal-Recessive Familial Disease
What four methods are used in prenatal diagnosis of a fetus
Ultrasound, chorionic biopsy, amniotic fluid, maternal blood
When a fetus has Periventricular hemorrhage, what syndrome has occurred
Neonatal Respiratory Syndrome leads to what disorder in fetuses with inherited ventricular defects?
In what age range does Sudden Infant Death occur
Between 2 and 9 months of age what syndrome might occur in newborns?
4 examples of edema:
Anasarca, ascites, hydrothorax, periorbital edema are examples of:
What is the term for an accumulation of leukocytes in the extracellular space between cells
What type of edema leads to liver failure
Oncotic Edema leads to what organ's failure?
What type of edema occurs with a failing of the left ventricle of the heart
Pulmonary edema occurs after the failure of what structure in the heart?
An example of active Hyperemia:
Blushing = dilation of arterioles = more blood to cheeks
If there is the presence of "heart failure cells" in sputum, what does this indicate
Sputum with "heart failure" cells indicates a failure of what structure?
A hemorrhage which is arterioles is characterized by what
Bright red color blood and pulsating flow indicated what type of hemorrhaging?
What is the term for a gastric ulcer
a type of Melena in the stomach:
Metrorrhagia is a possible cause of what?
Anemia is a consequence of loss of what bodily fluid?
What structure of cell tissue surrounds any thromboses vein or artery
A thrombi is surrounded by what cell structures)?
List 4 factors that can initiate thrombosis of vessels:
inflammation, necrosis, stasis, and hypercoagalation initiate what?
Endocarditis is what type of thrombi?
A valvular thrombi occurs in what disease?
What is the term for the process of granulomas tissue growth in venous thrombi
organization is the process of what?
An emboli full of air would occur in what instance, for example?
Decompression Sickness would cause an embolism full of what to form?
In what part of the body do venous embolisms occur?
A pathological change in the vascular system which occurs in the lower part of the body is:
What organ is most affected by the occurrence of venous emboli
The lungs are most commonly affected by what type of embolism?
What type of emboli originate in the Left Ventricle of the heart and travel to the Cerebrum to cause brain disease
Arterial emboli originate in the _____ and travel to the _______ to cause emboli that part of the body….
Where are red infarcts found in the body
Infarcts are found in the Small Intestine:
Fibrous scars, which are healed infarctions, are found in most parts of the body, but not found in the:
Brain; infarctions in the brain do not heal by scarring
Massive bleeding causes what type of shock
Hypo-Volemic Shock:
When bleeding occurs in the adrenals and/or the skin, what type of shock is occurring in this disorder
Endo-Toxemic Shock occurs when there is bleeding in what part of the body?
Abscesses are caused by what type of embolism
What pathological growths, abnormalities result from Septic Embolism?
Three Congenital heart diseases:
1. Tetralogy, 2. Rubella, 3. Defective Valves in Heart: Congenital or Ischemic?
Three Ischemic heart diseases:
Heart Attack (MI), Atherosclerosis, Angina: Congenital or Ischemic?
Hypertension may lead to the progression of renal disease, which may cause:
A stroke may result from renal disease caused by this chronic disorder:
Two Inflammatory diseases:
1. Rheumatic Fever, 2. Endocarditis (bacterial): infectious or inflammatory diseases?
Hyper-Lipid-Emia ia a type of:
Metabolic disorder, increased lipids (fat):
Four risk factors for Stroke:
1. Old age (vascular degeneration leading to atherosclerosis - possibility of stroke from stasis), 2. Hereditary factor for atheriosclerosis, 3. Diabetes (complication), 4. chronic or acute hypertensive disease
Environmental factor leading to atheriosclerosis and/or stroke
Cigarette smoke #1 factor for what disease?
An Aneurysm located in the Abdominal Aorta is called:
Atherosclerotic: a term for aneurysms found where?
The narrowing of what artery may be a cause of hypertensive disease
The renal artery, is narrowed, may be a factor for what disorder?
When atheriosclerosis of the popliteal artery occurs, what is this called
Intermittent Claudication is atheriosclerosis of which artery?
A myocardial infarct involves which ventricle and is termed what
involves rupture of the Left Ventricle, which can leads to acute cardiac tamponade, and ultimately cause what?
Occlusion of arteries elevates which enzyme
Creatine Kinase is an enzyme which increases after the occlusion of what kind of artery.
The more common type of hypertension is idiopathic, secondary, or other
Idiopathic, or essential, hypertension is the most common and is either essential or secondary disorder of the vascular system?
Rheumatic carditis is usually caused by
Strep throat can cause ________ if not resolved.
Rheumatic carditis commonly leads to a more serious condition, called:
Bacterial endocarditis is a common consequence of what other disease in the heart?
Coxsackie B virus cause what disease
Myocarditis is caused most often by what virus?
Examples of Iatrogenic Lesions of the Heart include (4):
1. radiation induced lesions, 2. doxorubicin-induced lesions, 3. digitalis toxicity, 4. postcardiotomoy pericarditis (are examples of what type of lesions in the heart?)
Alcohiolic cardiomyopathy is an Iatrogenic heart lesion, true or false
False: Iatrogenic Heart Lesions do not include the following:
Common infectious diseases:
1. Croup, 2. Pneumonia, 3. Bronchitis: are examples of what type of disease?
2 common immune diseases:
1. Asthma, 2. Sarcoidosis; are what type of diseases?
What type of disease is asbestosis considered to be
A common example of "Mineral-Dust Induced" disease
Mineral-Dust induced disease:
asbestosis and silicosis are examples of _________ induced disease:
Tumors can be classified in two ways:
Carcinoid or Mesothelioma are terms for what pathological structure?
Most common Lung infection occurs in:
The Upper Respiratory Tract is the site of what pathological change?
Is childhood bronchitis usually caused by hereditic factors, bacteria, or a virus
What childhood lung disease is usually caused by viral infection?
What is the term for disease involving the following: lung infection, heart failure, and pulmonary edema (all conditions).
Hypostatic type- Pneumonia presents with 3 distinct symptoms:
Interstitial pneumonia is preceded by what other type of pneumonia
Hypostatic pneumonia may lead to what other kind of pneumonia?
Granulomas forming in the lungs is characteristic of what disease
Tuberculosis presents with formation of what type of pathological cell structure?
What enzyme is deficient in the case of congenital emphysema
Alpha-1 Antitypic is deficient in people with what disease?
Name four triggers of Intrinsic asthma:
1. Exercise, 2. Stress, 3. Aspirin, 4. active infection; trigger what reaction?
What is the medical term for the disease commonly found in coal workers
Pneumoconiosis is a disease induced by what external factor?
What four syndromes may result from exposure to asbestos
1. pulmonary fibrosis, 2. pleural fibrosis, 3. lung cancer, 4. Mesothelioma: all thought to be caused by exposure to what chemical?
What does "DAD" stand for
short for: Diffuse Alveolar Damage
What is DAD
Damage to the alveoli causing intra-alveolar edema and the formation of hyaline membranes in the lungs or thoracic cavity is called what?
What is the presenting symptoms of Lung cancer, usually
Prolonged, persistent cough with expectoration of sputum
What is the progression of disease in the pleural cavity generally, beginning with effusion of the pleural cavity
Effusion leads to formation of Tumors in what organ?
Five examples of RBC disorders:
1. sickle cell anemia, 2. iron-deficiency type anemia, 3. megaloblastic anemia, 4. Polycythemia, 5. thanlossemia minor: types of disorders of which type of cells?
Two leukocyte disorders:
1. Neutropenia, 2. Leukemia: disorders of which type of cells?
Two lymphocyte disorders
1. Hodgkin's disease, 2. Myeloma: disorders of which type of cells?
Two platelet disorders:
1. Thrombocytopenia, 2. thrombocytocic purpura are disorders of which type of cell?
Two Soluble-Clotting Factor disorders
1. Deficiency of Vitamin K leading to Bleeding disorder, 2. hemophilia A
Which type of anemia is treated with iron supplements
Hypochromic Anemia responds to supplements of what mineral?
Is Aplastic Anemia considered Idiopathic or Secondary in nature
an Idiopathic Anemic Disorder:
Four types of Hemolytic Anemias:
1. Sickle cell, 2. Speherocytosis, 3. Thelassemia minor, 4. Thelassemia major
Four precursors of secondary Polycythemia (
1. Increased RBC, 2. increased viscosity of blood, 3. increased erythroid, 4. increased thrombi
Infection of B Lymphocytes occurs in what Viral disease
Epstein-Barr virus infects which cells in the body? (B or T)
The HTLV-1 virus causes what diseases)
1. Leukemia, 2. Lymphoma are caused by what virus?
Leukemia type which is most common is:
Acute Myelogenous Leukemia is more or less common type?
Most common leukemia in children:
Lymphoblastic Leukemia: found in children < 5 years
Main symptom of lymphoma:
Enlarged nodes indicated what disease process?
Without chemotherapy, which type of leukemia has the best prognosis
Lymphocytic leukemia has what prognosis without chemotherapy?
What is an example of a "low grade" type of lymphoma disease
follicular lymphoma is of what grade?
What is "DIC"
a disease characterized by the consumption/destruction of platelets leading to widespread hemorrhaging (no clotting)
How can DIC be diagnosed?
Patients with _______ will have fibrous-split products in the urine