• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/27

Click to flip

27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the minimum requirements for growth in bacteria?
carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosporus, hydrogen, sulfur, energy, water, and ions like iron.
What is the purpose of siderophores?
Siderophores are secreted by bacteria to sequester iron from the surrounding environment, i.e. the host.
What are some factors that affect growth of a bacterium?
pH and temperature
What are psychrophiles?
Bacteria that are able to tolerate very cold temperatures.
What are mesophiles?
Bacteria that are able to tolerate a moderate temperature.
What are thermophiles?
Bacteria that are able to survive extremely high temperatures.
What is a heterotroph?
An organism that cannot fix carbon, and therefore must consume it and break it down in some other way. Pathogens are heterotrophic.
What is catabolism?
The breakdown of chemical compounds. This creates energy.
What is anabolism?
The synthesis of chemical compounds. This requires energy.
What is the purpose of catabolism?
to create precursors for biosynthesis (building blocks) and the fuel metabolism and cellular processes (energy)
Describe the energy transfer in redox reactions (i.e. Where do the electrons go?)
The reduced compound is a higher energy compound like glucose, and therefore has more electrons. This can be oxidized via catabolism, lose its electrons, and give the H and electron to NAD.
What is the purpose of NAD and FAD?
It's used as an "electron shuttle" to transport electrons after a redox reaction with glucose. They act as electron acceptors.
How is energy stored within the body?
Energy is stored in a high-energy phosphate bond within ATP.
What is oxidation?
loss of electrons, loss of hydrogen.
What is reduction?
Gain of electrons, gain of hydrogen.
How does NAD work?
NAD oxidizes a molecule like glucose and is therefore reduced iteself. It's reduced form, NADH, travels to the ETC, is where they are oxidized to produce energy.
How is energy produced?
Energy is generated by the phorphorylation of Addenosine diphosphate .
How much ATP and NADH is used and generated in glycolysis? Does glycolysis require oxygen?
2 ATP is used, 4 ATP and 2 NADH is produced, therefore a total of 2 ATP and 2 NADH is produced. Does not require oxygen.
What is produced in the TCA cycle?
GTP, NADH, and FADH2.
What is an aerobe?
An organism that can grow in an oxygenated environment.
What is a facultative anaerobe?
Makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present, but is also capable of fermentation.
What is an obligate anaerobe?
Die in the presence of oxygen.
What are microaerophiles?
Organisms that require less than atmospheric amounts of oxygen to survive.
What are aerotolerant organisms?
Doesn't require oxygen for growth.
Breifly describe aerobic respiration.
Metabolic process that involves oxygen as final electron acceptor. Glycolysis, TCA cycle, ETC. Produces 38 ATP per glucose.
Briefly describe anaerobic respiration.
Metabolic process in which something other than oxygen is the final electron acceptor, e.g. nitrates, sulphates. Glycolysis, TCA cycle, ETC. Produces less ATP than aerobic respiration.
Briefly describe the fermentation process.
There is glycolysis but no TCA cycle or electron tranport chain. NADH can reduce pyruvate to fermentation end products, which can recycle NAD but doesn't create energy.