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17 Cards in this Set

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Describe passive immunity.
Receiving antibodies from an external source, thus the immune system is not challenged. This provides rapid, temporary protection. An example is the immunity provided from mother to child.
What are the roles of passive immunity?
preventing disease after known exposure, ease symptoms after disease, protect immunodeficient, block action of bacterial toxins.
What is active immunity?
When the immune system is challenged, either through a natural challenge or an artificial challenge (aka vaccine)
List the five types of vaccines.
Live, inactivated, subunit, recombinant vector, DNA.
How is a live vaccine produced?
A virus is grown under non-physiological conditions so as to adapt to these conditions. Thus, when inserted into the body, it will not be able to thrive.
Describe the live vaccine.
Composed of a live pathogen, has continuous antigenic stimulation, and enhances the immune response.
Describe some potential problems with the live vaccine.
May be ineffective for immunosupressed, may revert back to virulent form, and the vaccine viability must be maintained (problem in underdeveloped countries).
What is an inactivated pathogen?
One that cannot replicate.
What is an adjuvant?
Agent that is injected with the antigen to non-specifically enhance the immune response in inactivated vaccines.
Describe inactivated vaccines.
Pathogens that are inactivated by heat or chemicals, require multiple doses. Toxoid released to enhance antingen response from immune system. Usually administered with adjuvant.
What is a toxoid?
Inactivated toxin that enhances the immune response against certain antigens.
Describe subunit vaccines.
Contains specific antigenic component of pathogen. Naturally inactive. Antigen could be polysaccharide or protein.
Describe polysaccharide subunit vaccines.
T-independent antigens. Antibody response is poor, has no memory. Limited to IgM.
What is a Conjugated Subunit vaccine?
When polysaccharides are conjugated with a protein. Results in T-dependent response. More antibody, class switching, and memory.
Describe the recombinant vector vaccine.
Gene for the encoding antigen is inserted into a carrier, carrier is inserted into host. Antigen is presented which causes an immune response. Continuous antigenic stimulaiton. "Live vaccine"
Describe the DNA vaccine.
Antigen gene inserted into plasmid, then gene for antigen is inserted directly into the DNA of host. Gene expressed, antigen produced, seen as foreign, immune system response.
What type of immune response does the DNA vaccine mediate?
Cell and antibody mediated response.