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36 Cards in this Set

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What is Barret's esophagitis
Cells in the esophagus undergo dysplasia; may be precursor to adenocarcinoma
what is melena
black tarry stools
term used for bright red blood per rectum
hematochezia
MC pathogen assoc. with community acquired pnuemonia
Strepocaccus Pneumonia(gram +)
MC pathogen assoc with nosocomial acquired pneumonia
Pseudomonas (gram -)
sign to detect cholecystitis
Murphy's sign
sign to dectect appendicitis
obturator and ileopsoas sign;
also tenderness at McBurney's point
MCC of pneumonia assoc with morbidity and mortality in the world
TB
type of diarrhea where the food intake contributes to the patient's diarrhea
Osmotic diarrhea
where does gas exchange take place?
terminal bronchials and alveolar ducts and sacs
alveolar cells that participate in gas exchange
Type I
what is the concentration and partial pressure of oxygen in the air
around 21%, 152mmHg
Def. of Ventilation
movement of gases into and out of the lungs resulting from a change in chest volume
Def. of perfusion
delivery of oxygenated blood to the tissues
where do Loop diuretics exert their effects
in the thick ascending loop of Henle
Types of diuretics
Loop
Thiazide
Potassium sparing
what is the vasa recta
a series of capillaries that descend from the cortex into the medulla
How do Loop diuretics work?
they affect the ascending loop by inhibiting the Na/K/Cl transport system. Results in <Na and K reabsorption and > calcium and magnesium elimination
Most reabsorption of protein and electrolytes takes place here
the proximal convoluted tubule
the beginning to the collecting duct
Bowman's capsule
persistent proteinuria is a sign of?
Kidney disease
what is hydronephrosis
obstruction of the ureter causing back up of fluid
what do the serum creatinine levels reflect?
the glomerular filtration rate
what is creatinine
a byproduct of creatine metabolism by the muscle; it is filtered but not reabsorbed in the kidney
what is BUN
a measure of protein metabolism and eliminated entirely by the kidneys; it is influenced by protein intake, GI bleed
what is cholestasis
decrease in bile flow throught he intrahepatic canaliculi and the reduction of water, bilirubin, and bile acids by the hepatocytes
this substance increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma
alcohol
Charcot's triad
Jaundice
Fever
RUQ pain
contents of bile
cholesterol, bilirubin, lecithin, bile salts
what stimulates the gallbladder to contract
CCK
what do the islets of langherhan do?
they make insulin and glucagon
role of histamine in digestion
stimulates gastric secretion of HCL and goblet cell secretion
role of intrinsic factor
allows for the binding of B12 in the intestine
enterohepatic circulation
reabsorption of bile and intrinsic factor at the terminal ileum
2 types of inflammatory bowel disease
ulcerative colitis
Crohn's Disease
an inflammatory bowel disease that is usually confined to the rectum and colon
ulcerative colitis