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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
- regulation of Na balance
- synthesized/secretion from adrenal cortex
- influenced by blood volume and conc. of Na and K
- effect over hrs/days
- immune rxn which individual of the same species have incompatible antigens, preventing them from receiving an organ transplant from each other.
potentially life threatening immediate hypersensitivity response caused by exposure of a sensitized individual to a specific antigen
- lack of rxn by body's defense mechanism to foreign substance
- often indicates that immune system is unable to mount a normal immune response
growth of a tumor that originates from blood vessels in surrounding tissue
Protein of the adaptive immune response that interacts with the antigen that induced its synthesis
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
- protein hormone
-produced in hypothalamus
- stored and released by post. pituitary
- acts to increase water reabsorption in the kidneys
Anion gap
difference between calculated serum cations and anions

(Na + K) - (Cl + CO2)

- normal = 9-16mEq
helps to analyze acid/base disorder
-abnormal # of chromosome
- ex. polyploidy - complete extra set of chromosomes - not compatible with life
- active process of cellular self - destruction
- programed cell death: normal process
- response to physiological clues----can be pathologic
-decrease in cellular size
- causes: decrease in blood supply, use, poor nutrition, changes in hormonal/nervous stimulation
autoimmune disease
- condition where immune system considers individuals own body tissue to be foreign antigens and initiaites an immune response against those tissues
a protein produced during the plasma kinin clascade that acts to stimulate vasodialation and pain receptor activation to increase capillary permeability
- protein hormone
- produced by parafollicular cells of thyroid gland
- decrease plasma calcium and phosphate levels by inhibiting osteoclastic activity in bone
cell cycle
Meiosis = reproduction of gametes

Interphase - longest phase - cell grows in size, chromosome elongates and DNA replicates

Prophase - DNA coils, centrioles move to opp poles

Metaphase - chromosomes align across cell equator, nucleoli and nuclear membrane disappear

Anaphase - chromosomes divide and move to opp poles

Telophase - chromosomes elongate, nuclear membranes reappear and enclose chromosome
- plasma protein
- enzymatic cascade triggered by bacterial recognition or antibody provides protection against non capsular bacteria, large viruses, and intracellular organisms

Role in infection:
activation of macrophages
release of immune mediators
chemotaxis - calls WBCs
opsonization - makes easier to be phagocitized
transport of immune complexes
lysis of cells (kills damaged cells)
- useful in assessment of anemia and infection

Bands (0-4), segs (47-63), monos (4-9), lymps (24-40) Eos (0-3), Basos (0-2)
- 1 copy of allele needed to express phenotype
- autosomal dominance – each pregnancy 50% chance
o all affected have at least 1 parent who carries allele
o # males = # females
- X – linked dominant
o Males and females affected (males more severely affected)
o If female affected, offspring has 50% chance, if male affected all daughters affected, no sons affected
-abnormal changes in size, shape and organization of mature cells
-changes often reversible
-ex. Cervix (occurs w/ multiple partners or HPV), lungs, skin
-termed neoplasia for malignant changes
- polysaccharide that is released during cell lysis from the bacterial outer membrane
- causes fever, leucopenia, possible diarrhea, and hemorrhagic shock
-hormone released by kidneys
-stimulates globin synthesis
-response to hypoxia
-joins with IL-3 and GM-CSF
-increases production of erythrocyte progenitor cells
-chronic inflammation triggered by persistent infectious agents
-granulomas often fuse into multinucleated giant cells
oalso generally have central area of macrophages and are surrounded by T lymphocytes
-Chronic Granulomatous disease
oInability to produce superoxide radicals for killing
oMutations affect several proteins of the NADPH oxidase system
oG6PD deficiency impairs intracellular killing
oAssociated with Cediak-Higashi syndrome – cant get into lysosome
oX-linked autosomal
oMajority diagnosed in childhood
Lungs, lymph system, soft tissue, skin, bone, urinary tract
Heinz body
- impair DNA synthesis and damage RBC membrane
- seen in Thalassemia
- Hct
-Percentage of RBC to whole blood
-Ratio of cells to fluid
-Hct of 45% = 45ml of PRBC in 100 ml of whole blood
-Changes in fluid in circulation impacts Hgb/Hct
- production of blood cells in the bone marrow
- stem cells start in marrow
o pluripotent, undifferentiated, self perpetuation
odifferentiate into progenitor cells of specific lines

-progenitor cells in marrow
osimilar to stem cells – but more committed
o“blast cells”
-mature cells – in peripheral blood
ocompletely differentiated
-having only a single copy of a gene instead of the customary 2 copies. All of the gene on the single X chromosome in the male are in the hemizygous state
-male has only one x chromosome containing gene for specific disease but has no alleles on the Y chromosome to counteract the effects of the diseased gene
-Multiple types; determines oxygen carrying capacity
-Type produced depends on age and genes
oFetal, Hgb F = 2 alpha, 2 gamma
oAdult, Hgb A = 2 alpha, 2 beta
lysis of erythrocytes with the release of hemoglobin
-enlargement of the liver
- individual with two diffeent alleles at a locus
-Ex. Genotype AS
- hormone produced by mast cells
- function - dialate capillaries so they are more permeable during allergic rxns.
- Regulate gastric acid production in the GI tract
- individuals with the same two alleles at a locus
- ex. genotype AA
-increase in number of cells
oincreased rate of cell division
oresponse to injury or other physiological cues
omay occur with hypertrophy
-ex. Liver, skin, kidney, blood donation, prostate (prostate squeezes urethra because too many cells grow inward)
abnormally deep/rapid breathing
-increase in cellular size
oincreased protein in cellular components
ophysiologic mechanism uncertain
ochange in balance b/t protein sythesis and protein degradation

-ex. Heart and kidney
Immune thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP)
-accelerated platelet destruction
-thrombocytopenia is only abnormal lab finding – smear reveals large platelets
-generally acute and self limiting
omost resolve w/o intervention
-common in childhood (3-5 years old)
ooccurs 2-3 weeks after viral illness – bruising and tiny “red freckles” on chest
-chronic ITP
o10-20% persist beyond 6 months
Intraveneous immunoglobulin
Splenectomy – cures 70-80%
Rituximab – new therapy
Innate Immunity
a.Primary defense
b.Not specific
c.Resistance is not improved by repeated infections
Adaptive/Aquired immunity
a.Second line of defence
b.Reactions are specific to invasion
c.Memory improved by repeated infections
i.Ex. Immunizations
d.Humoral and cellular immunity
e.Recognizes self vs. non self
f.May take up to 2 weeks to develop antibodies
g.Response to specific antigen
Inflammatory process
- nonspecific response to tissue damaging irritants in which pain, heat, redness and swelling rapidly occur at site of injury
Intrinsic factor (IF)
small protein secreted y parietal cells of gastric glands and required for adequate absorption of Vit. B12
- chromosome contribution (pictoral analysis)
- Chromosome numbered 1-22 based on size, x/y also included
Left shift
-changes in ratio or distribution
-toward immaturity “blasts”
-increased number of unsegmented neutrophils, triggered by a decrease in the lobularity
- mediator of prolonged inflammatory response that acts to contract smooth muscle, increasing vascular permeability and attract neutrophils
- mixture of cell lines
- some cells have normal number and structure of chromosomes, others have abnormality in number and structure
- number of cell lines effected depends on how early error occurred
- if proportion of abnormal cells is large, individual will manifest disease
- x chromosome inactive in some cases - in females; one x must be inactive to preserve gene dosage
- no clear inheritance pattern
- moderate evidence of inherited
- common in population – HD, cancer, dementia
- involves many genes or genes and environment
- process that occurs after cell death
- autodigestion
- signs:
o clumping and disruption of genetic material
o nucleus shrinks
o disruption of plasma and organelle membranes

- coagulative necrosis – kidneys, heart and adrenal glands; caused by hypoxia or chemical injury; results in denaturation of protein; albumin changes from gelatin to firm opaque substance
- liquefactive necrosis – injury to neurons and glial cells of brain, or from a bacterial infection; dead cells digested by hydrolytic enzymes; cysts are formed.
- Caseous necrosis – TB infection; dead cells not completely digested; granular tissue encloses area. TB can be in bones and organs as well as lungs
- Fat necrosis – occurs in breasts, pancreas and abdomen; fatty acids released as lipases dissolve triglycerides; create soap like substance
- Gangrenous necrosis – hypoxic injury usually from blocked circulation in lower leg; bacterial invasion follows; types = wet, dark, gas
-cells don’t completely split during mitosis
-most common type of errors
-will have 2 chromosomes on one side in telophase and none on the other
-may be problem in older women trying to conceive a child
- fragment that attaches antigens to phagocytes, tagging them for distruction
-movement of water up a concentration gradient, lower to higher
-directly related to hydrostatic pressure and solute concentration
-particles too big to move, so water moves to even out conc.
-probability a gene will have a phenotypic expression
-statistical term reflects percentage of people with genotype who also display phenotype
-ex. 75% penetrance = 75% of people with particular genotype demonstrate recognizable phenotype
-55-60% of blood volume
-complex aqueous liquid containing many organic and inorganic elements
owater 90-91%
oproteins 6.5 – 8%
o other substances 1-2%
amino acids
gases, electrolytes, excretory products
- traits in which variation is thought to be caused by the combined effects of multiple genes
- complete extra set of chromosomes, not compatible with life
Proenitor cell
-(in marrow)- similar to stem cells but more committed. Give rise to colonies of differentiated progeny. More committed to a specific cell line. Blast cells
mast cell derived substance that increases vascular permeability. Muscle contraction and neutrophil chemotaxis, as well as induced pain and potentially inhibits some inflammation
-2 copies of allele needed to express phenotype
-autosomal recessive
otypically parents not affected but carry gene
oeach pregnancy of carrier parent = 25% inherit 2 copies, 50% 1 copy and will be carrier, 25% no copies
o# females = # males
-x –linked recessive
o any male with 1 copy of x linked recessive diseased allele affected
ofemales are carriers
oaffected males pass on to daughter, but not sons
owomen are affected when have 2 copies of diseased allele
- Fast breathing
cond. where number of platelets in blood is severely decreased
facilitates production of megakaryocytes
-exchange of segments between two nonhomologous chromosome
-balanced = no loss genetic material
-Robertsonian Translocation = not balanced
oNonhomologous chromosomes broken near centrome
oCarrier is phenotypically normal, yet usually infertile – problems lining up during reproduction