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56 Cards in this Set

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what is rust colored sputum indicitive of?
Pneumococcal Pneumonia
acute inflammation of the parenchymal structures of lungs. (alveoli and bronchioles) productive cough. hemoptysis. fever.
bacterial pneumonia
inflamm. of the parenchymal structures of the lungs. productive cough. sputum. fever. chronic onset (weeks to months) anorexia.
TB related pneumonia
inflamm of parenchymal structures of the lungs;(alveoli and bronchioles) could be alcohol induced, irritants damage airways and have given bacteria a chance to develop and possibley cause a lung abcess.
aspiration pneumonia.
examples of transudate infections
CHF, renal failure, nephrosis, cirrhosis
what is the most common cause for a pleural effusion
bacterial pneumonia
what is the MC cause of pneumonia associated c increased morbitity and mortality in the world?
TB= m.tuberculosis= tb pneum.
examples of obstructive lung disease
asthma, emphysema
what are interstitial lung diseases?
restrictive, thickening of the external portion of the bronchial tube. restricts airflow. frsults from inflammatory conditions that affect the interalveolar structures of the lung and produce fibrosis. stiff and non compliant lung is hard to inflate. p take small, more frequent breaths. they exert their effects on the collagen and elastic connective tissue found between the airways and the blood vessels of the lung. thought to have common pathogenesis; due to injury to the alveolar epithelium followed by an inflamm. process.
examples of interstitial lung diseases?
sarcoidosis, occupational lung diseases, hypersensitity pneumonitis and dz's caused by exposure to toxic drugs. pg. 709
p presentation of interstitial lung diseases?
dyspnea, tachypnea and eventual cyanosis, s evidence of wheezing or signs of airway obstruction. insidious onset of breathlessness that occurs during exercise. non productive cough may develop, particularily c continued exposure to inhaled irritant. clubbing may develop. vital capacity and TLC are reduced
a group of respiratory disorders characterized by chronic and recurrent obstruction of airflow in the pulmonary airways. multiple pathogeneses; inflamm. and fibrosis of bronchial wall. excess mucus prod. FeV 1.0 ususally preserved. expiratory flow rates are reduced.
C.O.P.D's
what are the two main types of COPD?
EMPHYSEMA (c enlargement of air spaces & distruction of lung tissue. CHRONIC OBSTRC. BRONCHITIS; c obstruction of small airways.)
air within the pleural cavity
pneumothorax. air should not be within the pleural cavity, it will cause collapse.
name the muscles of respiration
SCM, scalenes, intercostal
known to cause "hot potato voice"in children, febrile, MC cause is H. influenzae type B bacterium. Acute onset of inflamm. edema of the supraglottic area including the epiglottis and pharyngeal structures.
Epiglottitis. prepare to intubate!
inflammation of the nasal mucosa and sinusitis to inflammation of the paranasal sinuses.. MC cause is conditions that obstruct the narrow ostia that drain the sinus.
rhinosinusitis
TRUE/FALSE? the intrapleural pressure is always negative in relation to alveolar pressure.
True. -4mm Hg between breaths when the glottis is open and the alveolar spaces are open to atmosphere.
what drives ventilation?
Co2
describe path/involvement of nerve fibers to the diaphragm
phrenic nerve, + parasymp. fibers. increase Vagus stimulation and lung expands.
p presentation of interstitial lung diseases?
dyspnea, tachypnea and eventual cyanosis, s evidence of wheezing or signs of airway obstruction. insidious onset of breathlessness that occurs during exercise. non productive cough may develop, particularily c continued exposure to inhaled irritant. clubbing may develop. vital capacity and TLC are reduced
a group of respiratory disorders characterized by chronic and recurrent obstruction of airflow in the pulmonary airways. multiple pathogeneses; inflamm. and fibrosis of bronchial wall. excess mucus prod. FeV 1.0 ususally preserved. expiratory flow rates are reduced.
C.O.P.D's
what are the two main types of COPD?
EMPHYSEMA (c enlargement of air spaces & distruction of lung tissue. CHRONIC OBSTRC. BRONCHITIS; c obstruction of small airways.)
air within the pleural cavity
pneumothorax. air should not be within the pleural cavity, it will cause collapse.
name the muscles of respiration
SCM, scalenes, intercostal
known to cause "hot potato voice"in children, febrile, MC cause is H. influenzae type B bacterium. Acute onset of inflamm. edema of the supraglottic area including the epiglottis and pharyngeal structures.
Epiglottitis. prepare to intubate!
inflammation of the nasal mucosa and sinusitis to inflammation of the paranasal sinuses.. MC cause is conditions that obstruct the narrow ostia that drain the sinus.
rhinosinusitis
TRUE/FALSE? the intrapleural pressure is always negative in relation to alveolar pressure.
True. -4mm Hg between breaths when the glottis is open and the alveolar spaces are open to atmosphere.
what drives ventilation?
Co2
describe path/involvement of nerve fibers to the diaphragm
phrenic nerve, + parasymp. fibers. increase Vagus stimulation and lung expands.
aggressive, locally invasive and widely metastic tumors that arise from the epithelial lining of the major bronchi.
bronchogenic carcinomas
4 types of Bronchogenic Carcinomas
small cell lung cancers, & Non-small cell lung cancers; squamous cell, adenocarcinomas, large cell carcinomas
disorders that are caused by bronchogenic cancers but that are unrelated to metastasis. including; hypercalcemia, cushings's, SIADH, Eaton-Lambert syndrome, hematologic disorders.
Paraneoplastic Disorders p. 677
tissue needs for oxygen and the removal of carbon dioxide are regulated by
chemoreceptors: they monitor blood levels for these gases.
two types of chemoreceptors?
peripheral and central
what are the most important chemoreceptors sensing changes in blood cardon dioxide content
central chemoreceptors in the respiratory center in the medulla and are bathed in CSF. receptors are H+ molecules in csf.
chemoreceptors that monitor arterial blood O2 levels.
peripheral receptors. located in the carotid and aortic bodies which are found at the bifurcation of the common carotid arteries and in the arch of the aorta. MAIN STIMULUS is HYPOXIA.
when is a VQ scan used?
a ventilation and perfusion scan is used when a thrombus from legs/calf breaks off and becomes an emboli...to measure the circulation of air and blood within a patient's lungs. The ventilation part of the test evaluates the ability of air to reach all parts of the lungs, while the perfusion part measures how well the blood circulates within the lungs. This test is most commonly done in order to check for the presence of a blood clot or abnormal blood flow inside the lungs (pulmonary embolism), although computed tomography angiography is now more commonly used for this purpose. A V/Q scan may also be performed in the case of serious lung disorders such as COPD or pneumonia.
a collection of pus within a natural body cavity, most commonly the pleural space surrounding the lungs. It is usually caused by a bacterial infection of the lungs (pneumonia).
empyema
types of exudate pneumonia
pneumonia, TB, CA, infectious related causes.
s3
ventricular gallop
s4
atrial gallop
summation gallop
s3 & s4
examples of physiological s3: who?
children, athletes, prenancy
are systolic murmurs pathological?
always until proven otherwise
are dyastolic murmurs pathological?
yes. could indicate valvular problems.
a soft murmur, best heard in the antecubital position, low in pitch
mitral stenosis
what is a pathological murmur?
as soon as the underlying condition causing the murmur is gone, the murmur goes away. ex) preg, hyperthroidism, etc.
P presents with 3/6 mitral murmur over aortic area and crackles upon auscultation. DOE. what does this indicate?
Left sided heart problem
receptors that stimulate the vagus nerve and cough reflex, are the stretch receptors. detect the pressure of blood flowing through them, and can send messages to the central nervous system to increase or decrease total peripheral resistance and cardiac output.

Baroreceptors can be divided into two categories, high pressure arterial baroreceptors and low pressure baroreceptors (also known as cardiopulmonary receptors).
baroreceptors
what are the most common bacterias associated with CAP.
1. Streptococcus pneumoniae 2. Hemophilus influenzae
what is a common presentation of a P c CAP.
productive cough, brown mucous, pleuritic pain, febrile,fluid accumulation may cause a pleural rub.
an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, which may or may not be as a result of infection, from either bacterial, fungal, viral, allergic or autoimmune issues. Newer classifications of sinusitis refer to it as rhinosinusitis, taking into account the thought that inflammation of the sinuses cannot occur without some inflammation of the nose as well (rhinitis).
sinusitis.
best way to DX sinusitis
palpation and percussion. visualize swelling.
what are some causes of a physiologic murmur?
pregnancy, DM, hyperthyroid, anemia,
what is the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve?
the relation between the oxygen carried in combination with hemoglobin and the PO2 (dissolved O2)of the blood