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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
physiology
functional
pathology
abnormal/ disease
bridges clinical and basic sciences
pathophysiology
"altered function"
disease
disruption of steady state
physiologic response is dependent on what 7 factors:
genetic differences, age, situational, coexistent disease, culture, time, gender
control of steady state done by:
positive and negative feedback
origins of disease process: (what acronym?)
TITMEND
what does titmend stand for?
Trauma, infection, toxin, metabolic, endocrine, neoplasia, degenerative
what are selye's concepts
adaptive responses in animals
name selye's 3 concepts of stress response
alarm, resistance, habituation
what happens with Selye's alarm concept
sympathetic stimulation
what happens with Selye's resistance concept
decline in symp activity/ adrenocorticoid hormones high
what happens with Selye's habituation/ exhaustion concept?
energy reserves depleted; system fails to respond
what systems are involved in stress response
nervous, immune, endocrine
name the steps in the fight or flight response
release of epi/ norepi from adrenal glands -> release of ADH, GH, Prolactin
define "coping"
functioning appropriately under stress
what 2 types of coping are there?
problem focused and emotion focused
define problem focused coping
addresses the problem
define emotion focused coping
reduced emotional pain
describe the plasma membrane
selective filter/ fence with varying size holes
what is the plasma membrane composed of
lipids, phospho lipids, and protein
how is the plasma membrane "polar"?
hydrophilic and hydrophobic sides
describe the plasma membrane
phospholipid bilayer with integrated proteins/ glycoproteins which serve as channels for transport and receptors
what types of molecules cross freely through the membrane
lipid soluble and oxygen; not ionic molecules
how are ionic molecules moved across the membrane
pumps and gated channels
what ions require pumps or channels to pass through the plasma membrane
Na, K, glucose, amino acids
what does the cytoskeleton do
holds organelles in place
what is contained in the nucleus
genetic material and chromosomes
describe the endoplasmic reticulum
rough and smooth; based on ribosome/ RNA presence
what does the golgi apparatus do?
works with the ER to synthesize and package proteins
what do the lysosomes do
contain digestive enzymes
what does the mitochondria do
the engine of the cell; burns fuel and generates ATP
what processes does the mitochondria use to "burn fuel" and "generate ATP"
oxidative phosphorylation and Kreb's citric acid cycle
what is the resting membrane potential
no net change of potential with ion movement (mostly potassium differences)
describe the membrane potential
pull of (-) charged proteins in vs steep concentration gradiant out
name 2 types of cells with excitable membranes
nerve and muscle
what happens during the action potential
rapid changes in action potential; voltage gated ion channels open; movement of Na in and K out
what are 3 types of cell to cell communicaiton
1) gap junctions exist-directly connect the cytoplasms
2) plasma membrane contact - receptor mediated- binds and causes effect;
3) secretion of chemical mediators
name 3 types of cellular response
injury, aging and death
what is the cellular response dependent on?
cell, agent, time of exposure
describe a type of reversible cell injury
hydropic swelling: Na and K malfunction; lack of ATP; causes an influx of Na and thus, water; intracellular accumulation of lipids, proteins and carbs
name 5 types of cellular adaptation
hypertrophy, atrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia, and dysplasia
what is hypertrophy
increased size of cells
what is atrophy
death of cells/ shrinkage
what is hyperplasia
increased number of cells
what is metaplasia
transition to a different type of cell
what is dysplasia
disorganized types of cellular appearance
name a type of irrerversible cell injury
necrosis
what types of necrosis are there?
coagulative, liquefactive, fat, caseous and apoptosis
what is coagulative necrosis
most common; denatured proteins/ relative solid (i.e. heart)
what is liquefactive necrosis
liquid area from lysosomal enzymes; cyst or abscess (brain)
what is fat necrosis
adipose tissue death/ trauma; pancreatitis
what is caseous necrosis?
lung tissue/ TB- clumpy- cheese like
what is apoptosis
cellular suicide/ regulated cell death- no inflammation
what are some etiologies of cell injury
hypoxia: low oxygen leads to lack of energy production (from ischemia/ lack of blood supply)
nutritional insufficiency/ minerals
infectious/ immunologic/ viral/ bacterial/ directly or secondary to immune response
chemical/ toxins
physical/ mechanical- temperature, pressure, electrical, radiation
name the 2 types of inflammation
acute and chronic
describe acute inflammation
immediate; early response to tissue injury (neutrophils); alteration in vascular permability (vasodilation); causes proteins to exit; from chemotaxis;
movement of leukocytes to site (margination, rolling, adhesion, diapedis)
name the 5 signs of inflammation
heat, redness, swelling, pain, loss of function
what happens with chemotaxis from inflammation
bacterial peptides, complement system, components of lipoxygenase system, cytokines, histamine (Mast cells) results in induced locomotion of WBC's and activate the leukocytes
what happens during the phagocytic stage of inflammation?
recognition and attachment, engulfment, and degradation by lysosomal enzymes; resulting in potential for cell injury
what are the 3 stages of chronic inflammation
mononuclear cellular infiltrate; tissue destruction; repair (angiogenesis and fibrosis)
describe the lymphatic system
thin walled channels/ vessels and nodes; function to drain and sample the extravascular space
what is another function of the lymphatic system
deliver antigens/ lymphocytes ("sentries") -> T and B cells to mount an immune response; consider lymphangitis vs lymphadenitis
what are the systemic effects of inflammation (acute phase reactants)?
fever, elevated WBC's (leukocytosis), anorexia, sleep changes, muscle protein breakdown (catabolic state), and hypotension
what happens with bacterial related leukocytosis
elevated WBC's; bands "left shift", immature neutrophils
what happens with a viral related leukocytosis
increased lymphocytes and monocytes
what happens with a parasitic or allergen related leukocytosis
increased number of eosinophils
what is meiosis
cell division that results in daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. Occurs in gonadal germ cells
what is mitosis
cell division that results in daughter cells with chromosomes that are identical to the parent cell. occurs in somatic cells
describe chromosomes
X shaped with attachment (centromere)
diploid - occur in pairs
humans have 23 chromosomes/ 22 autosomes and one set of sex (X and Y)
what is an allele
position on the chromosome (multiple genes)-> codes for a particular trait
what is homozygous
same alleles from both parents; AA or aa
what is heterozygous
different alleles from both parents; Aa
what is a dominant trait
expressed if present
what is particular characteristic of meiosis
no duplication of genetic material before 2nd cell division; haploid cell (sperm/ egg produced- carry one of each set)
what is a recessive trait
expressed only if received from both parents
what is codominance
both traits may be expressed (i.e. ABO blood type)
what is the Punnett square
calculating probability of expression of a genetic trait