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46 Cards in this Set

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What are the three systems that interact to produce pain? (page 330)
sensory/discriminative system, motivational/affective system, cognitive/evaluative system.
The __________system processes information about the strength, intensity, and temporal and spatial aspects of pain. (page 330)
sensory/discriminative system
The__________determines the individual's conditioned or learned approach/avoidance behaviours. (page 330)
motivation/affective system
The_________overlies the individual's learned behavior concerning the experience of pain. (page 330)
cognitive/evaluative system
T or F Pain is a complex phenomonon. (from notes)
True
What is a noxious stimuli? (from notes)
"something unpleasant"
T or F Pain is something unique to each individual. It is whatever the patient says "it is."
True
T or F Unrelieved pain has harmful effects on the body.
True
Name some harmful effects that unrelieved pain has on the body. (from notes)
Answers could include: Stimulation of the stress response causes increased muscle tension, local vasoconstriction, increased myocardial activity and oxygen consumption.
What is involved concerning "Transduction" (afferent pathways)? (notes/page 330)
"The afferent pathways acre composed of nociceptors (pain receptors)in the tissues. Afferent pathways terminate in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord." (page 330)"Chemicals (prostaglandins) released, sensitize afferent nociceptors." (from notes)
What inhibit the production of chemicals involved in "transduction?" (from notes)
NSAID's inhibit production of chemicals. What does NSAID stand for?
What is involved concerning "Transmission?" (from notes)
To brain. (from spinal cord)
What blocks "transmission?" (from notes)
Blocked by TENS, heat, massage.
Where does "perception" occur? (from notes)
Cortex. (book lists many more areas involved in interpreting pain signals; limbic system, reticular formation, thalamus, hypothalamus, medulla, and cortex. page 330)
What is modulation? (from notes)
Inhibition of nociception.
What are the three systems that interact to produce pain? (page 330)
sensory/discriminative system, motivational/affective system, cognitive/evaluative system.
The __________system processes information about the strength, intensity, and temporal and spatial aspects of pain. (page 330)
sensory/discriminative system
The__________determines the individual's conditioned or learned approach/avoidance behaviours. (page 330)
motivation/affective system
The_________overlies the individual's learned behavior concerning the experience of pain. (page 330)
cognitive/evaluative system
T or F Pain is a complex phenomonon. (from notes)
True
What is a noxious stimuli? (from notes)
"something unpleasant"
T or F Pain is something unique to each individual. It is whatever the patient says "it is."
True
T or F Unrelieved pain has harmful effects on the body.
True
Name some harmful effects that unrelieved pain has on the body. (from notes)
Answers could include: Stimulation of the stress response causes increased muscle tension, local vasoconstriction, increased myocardial activity and oxygen consumption.
What is involved concerning "Transduction" (afferent pathways)? (notes/page 330)
"The afferent pathways acre composed of nociceptors (pain receptors)in the tissues. Afferent pathways terminate in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord." (page 330)"Chemicals (prostaglandins) released, sensitize afferent nociceptors." (from notes)
What inhibit the production of chemicals involved in "transduction?" (from notes)
NSAID's inhibit production of chemicals. What does NSAID stand for?
What is involved concerning "Transmission?" (from notes)
To brain. (from spinal cord)
What blocks "transmission?" (from notes)
Blocked by TENS, heat, massage.
Where does "perception" occur? (from notes)
Cortex. (book lists many more areas involved in interpreting pain signals; limbic system, reticular formation, thalamus, hypothalamus, medulla, and cortex. page 330)
What is modulation? (from notes)
Inhibition of nociception.
What are efferent pathways, composed of the fibers connecting the reticular formation, midbrain, and substantia gelatinosa, respondsible for? (page 330)
"for modulating pain sensation"
What do endogeneous opiods do to the CNS? Give an example of one endogeneous opiod.
"Block transmission by binding o opiod receptors in CNS" (from notes, I think there is an extra o, but I put it how the notes had it.)
Endorphins
Explain the difference between A delta and C fibers. (question from notes/answer page 330)
"C fibers are small and lack a myelin sheath, so transmission is relatively slow (slow pain). Transmisssion through the slightly larger, myelinated A delta mechanical nociceptors occurs more quickly. A delta fibers carry well-localized, sharp pain sensations." (page 330)
_________unmyelianted carry dull burning, aching, diffuse sensations. (from notes)
"Slow C fibers"
_________are myelinated and carry sharp, well localized pain impulses. (from notes)
"Fast A-delta fibers"
______are a family of neuropeptides that inhibit transmission of pain impulses in the spinal cord and brain. (page 332)
"Endorphins (endogenous morphines)"
Name possible triggering mechanisms theat initiate release of neuromodulation. (page 332)
"...are tissue injury (prostaglandins, bradykinin) and chronic inflammatory lesions (lymphokines). (page 332)
What is the gate control theory? (page 331)
"Cells in the substantia gelatinosa function as a gate, regulating transmission of impulses to the CNS. (page 332)
What factors increase natural relase of endorphins? (from notes)
Answers could include:
_______, such as the pain of a crushed finger or the pain of a heart attack, is pain with a cause. (page 332)
Somatogenic pain (page 332)
________ is pain for which there is no known physical cause.
Psychogenic pain (page 332)
_____is a protective mechanism that alerts the individual to a condition or experience that is immediately harmful to the body. (page 332)
Acute pain (page 332)
_____is superficial (coming from the skin or close to the surface of the body) and is either sharp and well localized or dull, aching, and poorly localized and accompanied by nausea and vomiting. (page 332)
Somatic pain (page 332)
______is pain in internal organs, the abdomen, or skeleton. (page 332)
Visceral pain (page 332)
_____is pain that is present in an area removed or distant from its point of origin. (page 332)
Referred pain (page 332)
_________is persistent-usually defined as lasting at least 3 to 6 months and may be persist or intermittent. (page 333)**Note** book states 3 to 6, SUZY STATES 6 MONTHS OR MORE
Chronic pain (page 333)