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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is the most common indicator of renal failure?
define azotemia?
an accumulation of nitrogenous wastes in the blood: urea nitrogen, uric acid, creatinine
what are the 3 main causes/categories of renal failure?
pre renal, intrinsic, post-renal
what is the MC cause of acute renal failure?
pre-renal failure. a marked decrease in renal blood flow
what percentage of blood from the heart to the kidneys normally receive?
20 to 25%
what are the main manifestations of acute renal failure?
sharp decrease in urine output and disproportinate elevation of BUN.
what is the most common underlying problem of postrenal failure?
prostatic hyperplasia
what are the major causes of intrarenal failure?
1.ischemia associated with prerenal failure
2.toxic insult to the tubular structures of the nephron
3.intratubular obstruction
in acute renal failure, the GFR is decreased. T/F
true. as a result, excretion of nitrogenous wastes is reduced, and fluid and electrolyte balance cannot be maintained.
what are some of the conditions that can lead to acute renal failure?
-decrease in blood flow w/o ischemic injury
-ischemic, toxic or obstructive tubular injury
-obstruction of urinary tract flow
a condition in which the kidneys fail to remove metabolic end products from the blood, regulate fluid, electrolyte, and pH balance of the ECF?
renal failure
what causes acute renal failure?
conditions that produce an acute shutdown in renal function; ie decreased blood flow to the kidney, disorders that disrupt the structures in the kidney or disorders that interfere with the elimination of urine.
obstruction of urine outflow from the kidneys leads to what type of renal failure?
postrenal failure
what are the major causes of intrarenal failure?
-ischemia associated with prerenal failure
-toxic insult to the tubular structures of the nephron
-intratubular obstruction
-acute tubular necrosis
name of the disorder that is characterized by destruction of tubular epithelial cells with acute suppression of renal function?
acute tubular necrosis.
what are some causes of ATN?
ischemia, nephrotoxic effects of drugs, tubular obstruction, toxins from a massive infection
what type of cells in the tubules are particularly sensitive to ischemia and vulnerable to toxins?
tubular epithelial cells
which patients are especially vulnerable to ischemic ATN?
persons with major sx, severe hypovolemia, overwhelming sepsis, trauma and burns.
what are the two major causes of acute tubular necrosis?
ischemia and toxin exposure
what is the largest single cause of kidney failure in the U.S.?
Diabetic kidney disease
what conditions can cause chronic kidney failure?
a number of conditions that cause permanent loss of nephrons, including Diabetes, HTN, glomerulonephritis and polycystic kidney disease.
what is the best measure of overall function of the kidney?
GFR. for YA, healthy is approx. 120-130 mL/minute
what is one of the earliest symptoms of renal insufficiency?
isosthenuria; polyuria with urine that is almost isotonic with plasma.
what can be used as an indirect method for assessing the GFR adn the extent of renal damage?
serum creatinine
what is the term for urine found in the blood?
once 2/3 of the nephron has been destroyed, what clinical manifestation can be observed in renal failure?
how does uremia differ from azotemia?
azotemia merely describes the nitrogenous wastes accumulating in the blood, while uremia "blood in urine" includes a host of signs and symptoms.
what are the signs and symptoms of the uremic state?
altered fluid: electrolyte and acid-base balance; alterations in regulatory functions (htn, anemia, osteodystrophy) and the effects of uremia on body function