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172 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Adrenergic aka...
Sympathetic Nervous System
Cholinergic aka...
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Divisions of ANS
Sympathetic (Adrenergic) & Parasympathetic (Cholinergic)
Autonomic Nervous System aka...
Visceral, Vegetative, Involuntary Nervous System
Somatic: Voluntary or Involuntary
Voluntary
Peripheral Nervous System consists of:
Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems
What part of the Spinal Cord innervates the Parasympathetic Nervous System?
Craniosacral
What part of the Spinal Cord innervates the Sympathetic Nervous System?
Thoracolumbar
Roles of Sympathetic Nervous System
Responds to emergency situations (fear, anger, worry); Primarily involves expenditure of energy
Roles of Parasympathetic Nervous System
Controls activities of internal organs under normal conditions; Energy conservation
Parasympathetic preganglionic NT
Acetylcholine
Parasympathetic postganglionic NT
Acetylcholine
Ratio of size of Parasympathetic preganglionic to postganglionic fibers
Preganglionic longer
Sympathetic Preganglionic NT (pg 5)
Acetylcholine
Sympathetic Postganglionic NT (pg 5)
Norepinephrine (except sweat glands)
Ratio of Sympathetic preganglionic to postganglionic fibers (pg 5)
1:20 (postganglionic longer)
List and explain Parasympathetic receptors (pg 5)
NICOTINIC (all autonomic ganglion cells, Adrenal Medulla, Neuromuscular Junction); MUSCARINIC (all effector organs innervated by postgang. fibers)
List and explain Sympathetic receptors (pg 5)
alpha (inhibitory in GI, excitatory everywhere else); beta (excitatory in heart, inhibitory everywhere else); beta-1 (cardiac); beta-2 (bronchi, blood vessels, etc.)
MAO affects which neurotransmitter and how
breaks down Norepinephrine (NE) in presynaptic neuron
What does a decrease in NE lead to and how can we reverse the effects?
Depression; increase NE synthesis while decreasing reuptake, inhibit MAO which breaks down NE
What is epinephrine made from? (pg 14)
Tyrosine-->DOPA-->Dopamine-->Norepinephrine-->Epinephrine
What does DOPA stand for?
Dihydroxyphenylalanine
What is tyrosine hydroxylase, what is its cofactor, and where does it occur? (pg 14)
aka tyrosine-3-monooxygenase; catalyzes Tyrosine-->DOPA; tetrahydrobiopterin; neuron
What is aromatic L-amino acid decarboyxlase, what is its cofactor, and where does it occur? (pg 14)
catalyzes DOPA-->Dopamine; pyridoxal phosphate; neuron
What is dopamine-beta-hydroxylase, what is its cofactor, and where does it occur? (pg 14)
catalyzes Dopamine-->NE; ascorbate; neuron
What is phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase and what is its cofactor? (pg 14)
catalyzes NE-->Epi; S-adenosylmethionine; this enzyme acts ONLY in the adrenal medulla
Role of Eserine and its origin
aka Physostigmine, Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, made from Calabar bean
dominant receptor in the heart
beta-1
Methacholine (pg 15)
Muscarinic agonist
Carbechol (pg 15)
Muscarinic agonist; weak nicotinic agonist
Bethanechol (pg 15)
Muscarinic agonist
Pilocarpine (pg 15)
Muscarinic agonist
Edrophonium (pg 15)
Anti-Cholinesterase
Neostigmine (pg 15)
Anti-Cholinesterase
Organophosphorous compounds (pg 15)
Anti-Cholinesterase
Nicotine (pg 15&19)
Nicotinic Agonist (Ganglionic and Skeletal Muscle stimulants); in excess will be a depolarizing block at the ganglion
Anticholinesterases (action on synapses) (pg 15)
weak Nicotinic Agonists
Hexamethonium (pg 15&19)
Nicotinic Ganglion blockers
Pempidine (pg 15)
Nicotinic Ganglion Blockers
Mecamylamine (pg 15&19)
Nicotinic Ganglion Blockers
Atropine (pg 15&19)
Muscarinic (M-2) Antagonist
Scopolamine (pg 15)
Muscarinic Antagonist
Ipratropium (pg 15)
Muscarinic Antagonist
Tropicamide (pg 15)
Muscarinic Antagonist
Benzhexol (pg 15)
Muscarinic Antagonist
Alpha 1 / Alpha 2 Agonists (pg 17&19)
NE, Epi; Directly acting Sympathomimetics
Alpha 2 Agonists (pg 17&19)
Clonidine, alpha-methyl-noradrenaline; Directly acting Sympathomimetics
Alpha 1 Agonists (pg 17&19)
Phenylephrine, Methoxamine; Directly acting Sympathomimetics
Indirectly acting Sympathomimetics (pg 17)
Ephedrine, Amphetamine, (Tyramine), Cocaine
Beta 1 & Beta 2 Agonists (stimulates both) (pg 17)
Adrenaline, Isoprenaline; Directly acting Sympathomimetics
Beta 2 Agonists (pg 17&19)
Salbutamol, Terbutaline, Epi; Directly acting Sympathomimetics
Selective Beta 1 Agonists (pg 17&19)
NE, Dobutamine; Directly acting Sympathomimetics
Adrenergic Neurone Blockers (pg 17)
Reserpine, Guanethidine, Bethanidine; Directly acting Sympathomimetics
Parasympathetic Ganglia
Ciliary, Pterygopalatine, Submandibular, Otic
Sympathetic Ganglia
Superior Cervical, Middle Cervical, Inferior Cervical; Celiac, Superior Mesenteric, Inferior Mesenteric
Effector organs of sacral nerves
Distal colon, rectum, bladder, kidney, external genitalia
Cranial Nerves involved in Parasympathetic NS
III (Oculomotor), VII (Facial), IX (Glossopharyngeal), X (Vagus)
CN III Ganglia and Effector organs
Ciliary Ganglion; Eye (ciliary/circular muscles, iris)
CN VII Ganglia and Effector organs
Pterygopalatine Ganglion (lacrimal gland, nasal mucosa); Submandibular Ganglion (Submandibular gland, Sublingual gland)
CN IX Ganglia and Effector organs
Otic Ganglion; Parotid gland & oral mucosa
CN X Ganglia and Effector organs
no ganglia; Heart, Liver & Gall bladder, Stomach, Kidney, Lg Intestine (proximal/ascending colon), Sm. intestine, Larynx, Trachea, Lung (bronchi, pulmonary vessels)
Effector organs of Superior Cervical Ganglion
Eye (radial muscle, iris), Lacrimal galnd, Salivary glands (submandibular, sublingual, parotid), blood vessels of head & neck, Heart
Effector organs of Middle Cervical Ganglion
Heart
Effector organs of Inferior Cervical Ganglion
Heart
Effector organs of Celiac Ganglion
Liver & Gall bladder, Stomach, Sm. intestine, Kidney, Pancreas, Spleen, Adrenal Medulla
Effector organs of Superior Mesenteric Ganglion
Large intestine
Effector organs of Inferior Mesenteric Ganglion
Distal colon, Rectum, Bladder, External genitalia, Kidney
Postganglionic fibers from Sympathetic ganglia innervate visceral structures of the
Thorax, Abdomen, Head, Neck
Synthesis of Epinephrine starting at the amino acid
Tyrosine --> DOPA --> Dopamine --> Norepinephrine --> Epinephrine
What must happen to DOPA before it is converted to Dopamine?
enter vesicle
Where NE is converted to Epi
Adrenal medulla
Alpha 1 & Alpha 2 blockers (blocks both)
Phenoxybenzamine, Phentolamine, Tolazoline
Alpha 1 blockers
Prazosin, Phenoxybenzamine, Phentolamine, Tolazoline
Alpha 2 blockers
Yohimbine, Phenoxybenzamine, Phentolamine, Tolazoline
Beta 1 & Beta 2 blockers (blocks both) (pg 17 & 19)
Propranolol, Nadolol, Timolol, Oxprenolol, Pindolol, Alprenolol, Atenolol, Acebutolol
Beta 1 blocker only (pg 17 & 19)
Metoprolol
Beta 2 blocker only (pg 19)
Butoxamine
Nicotinic skeletal muscle antagonists
d-tubocurarine, Decamethonium
what is COMT
catechol-O-methyltransferase; catalyzes breakdown of NE in effector organs to Normetanephrine (NMN)
Adrenergic impulse on Radial muscle, iris of eye
alpha-1 receptor; Contraction (mydriasis) ++
Cholinergic impulse on Radial muscle, iris of eye
no response
Adrenergic impulse on Sphincter muscle of eye
no response
Cholinergic impulse on Sphincter muscle of eye
Contraction (miosis)+++
Adrenergic impulse on Ciliary muscle of Eye
beta-2 receptor; Relaxation for far vision +
Cholinergic impulse on Ciliary muscle of Eye
Contraction for near vision +++
Adrenergic impulse on Lacrimal glands
alpha receptor; Secretion +
Cholinergic impulse on Lacrimal glands
Secretion +++
Adrenergic impulse on SA node of Heart
beta-1 (dominant) & beta-2; Increase heart rate ++
Cholinergic impulse on SA node of Heart
Decrease in heart rate; vagal arrest
Adrenergic impulse on Atria of Heart
beta-1 (dominant) & beta-2; Increase in contractility & conduction velocity ++
Cholinergic impulse on Atria of Heart
Decrease in contractility, and shortened AP duration ++
Adrenergic impulse on His-Purkinje system of Heart
beta-1 (dominant) & beta-2; Increase in automaticity and conduction velocity +++
Cholinergic impulse on His-Purkinje system of Heart
Little effect
Adrenergic impulse on AV node of Heart
beta-1 (dominant) & beta-2; Increase in automaticity and conduction velocity ++
Cholinergic impulse on His-Purkinje system of Heart
Little effect
Adrenergic impulse on Ventricles of Heart
beta-1 (dominant) & beta-2; Increase in contractility, conduction velocity, automaticity, and rate of idioventricular pacemakers +++
Cholinergic impulse on Ventricles of Heart
Slight decrease in contractility
Adrenergic impulse on Coronary Arterioles
alpha-1 & alpha-2: Constriction + ; beta-2: Dilation ++
Cholinergic impulse on Coronary Arterioles
Dilation (Constriction with endothelial damage)
Adrenergic impulse on Skin and Mucosa Arterioles
alpha-1 & alpha-2: Constriction +++
Cholinergic impulse on Skin and Mucosa Arterioles
Dilation
Adrenergic impulse on Skeletal Muscle Arterioles
alpha: Constriction ++ ; beta-2: Dilation ++
Cholinergic impulse on Skeletal Muscle Arterioles
Dilation +
Adrenergic impulse on Cerebral Arterioles
alpha-1: slight Constriction
Cholinergic impulse on Cerebral Arterioles
Dilation
Adrenergic impulse on Pulmonary Arterioles
alpha-1: Constriction +; beta-2: Dilation
Cholinergic impulse on Pulmonary Arterioles
Dilation
Adrenergic impulse on Abdominal viscera Arterioles
alpha-1: Constriction +++; beta-2: Dilation +
Cholinergic impulse on Abdominal viscera Arterioles
No response
Adrenergic impulse on Salivary glands Arterioles
alpha-1 & alpha-2: Constriction +++
Cholinergic impulse on Salivary glands Arterioles
Dilation ++
Adrenergic impulse on Renal Arterioles
alpha-1 & alpha-2: Constriction +++; beta-1 & beta-2: Dilation +
Cholinergic impulse on Renal Arterioles
No response
Adrenergic impulse on Veins (Systemic)
alpha-1 & alpha-2: Constriction ++ ; beta-2: Dilation ++
Cholinergic impulse on Veins (Systemic)
No response
Adrenergic impulse on Tracheal and bronchial muscle of Lungs
beta-2: Relaxation +
Cholinergic impulse on Tracheal and bronchial muscle of Lungs
Contraction ++
Adrenergic impulse on Bronchial glands of Lungs
alpha-1: Decreased secretion ; beta-2: Increased secretion
Cholinergic impulse on Bronchial glands of Lungs
Stimulation +++
Adrenergic impulse on Motility and tone of Stomach
alpha-1 & alpha-2, beta-2 Decrease (usually) +
Cholinergic impulse on Motility and tone of Stomach
Increase +++
Adrenergic impulse on Sphincters of Stomach
alpha-1: Contraction (usually) +
Cholinergic impulse on Sphincters of Stomach
Relaxation (usually) +
Adrenergic impulse on Secretion in Stomach
Inhibition (?)
Adrenergic impulse on Secretion in Stomach
Stimulation +++
Adrenergic impulse on Motility and tone of Intestine
alpha-1 & 2, beta-1 & 2: Decrease +
Cholinergic impulse on Motility and tone of Intestine
Increase +++
Adrenergic impulse on Sphincters of Intestine
alpha-1: Contraction (usually) +
Cholinergic impulse on Sphincters of Intestine
Relaxation (usually) +
Adrenergic impulse on Secretion in Intestine
alpha-2: Inhibition
Cholinergic impulse on Secretion in Intestine
Stimulation ++
Adrenergic impulse on Gall bladder and Ducts
beta-2: Relaxation +
Cholinergic impulse on Secretion in Intestine
Contraction +
Adrenergic impulse on Renin secretion in Kidneys
alpha-1: Decrease + ; beta-1: Increase ++
Cholinergic impulse on Renin secretion in Kidneys
No response
Adrenergic impulse on Detrusor of Urinary bladder
beta-2: Relaxation (usually) +
Pirenzepine
Muscarinic (M-1) blocker
Cholinergic impulse on Detrusor of Urinary bladder
Contraction +++
Adrenergic impulse on Trigone and sphincter of Urinary bladder
alpha-1: Contraction ++
Cholinergic impulse on Trigone and sphincter of Urinary bladder
Relaxation ++
Adrenergic impulse on Motility and tone of Ureter
alpha-1: Increase
Cholinergic impulse on Motility and tone of Ureter
Increase (?)
Adrenergic impulse on Uterus
Pregnant: contraction (alpha-1), relaxation (beta-2); Nonpregnant: relaxation (beta-2)
Cholinergic impulse on Uterus
Variable
Adrenergic impulse on Male Sex Organs
alpha-1: Ejaculation ++
Cholinergic impulse on Male Sex Organs
Erection ++
Adrenergic impulse on Pilomotor muscles of Skin
alpha-1: Contraction ++
Cholinergic impulse on Pilomotor muscles of Skin
No response
Adrenergic impulse on Sweat glands of Skin
alpha-1: Localized secretion +
Cholinergic impulse on Sweat glands of Skin
Generalized secretion ++
Adrenergic impulse on Spleen capsule
alpha-1: Contraction ++ ; beta-2: Relaxation +
Cholinergic impulse on Spleen capsule
No response
Adrenergic impulse on Adrenal medulla
No response
Cholinergic impulse on Adrenal medulla
Secretion of Epi and NE (primarily nicotinic and secondarily muscarinic)
Adrenergic impulse on Skeletal Muscle
beta-2: Increased contractility, glycogenolysis, K+ uptake
Cholinergic impulse on Skeletal Muscle
No response
Adrenergic impulse on Liver
alpha-1 & beta-2: Glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis +++
Cholinergic impulse on Liver
No response
Adrenergic impulse on Acini of Pancreas
alpha: Decreased secretion +
Cholinergic impulse on Acini of Pancreas
Secretion ++
Adrenergic impulse on Islets (beta cells) of Pancreas
alpha-2: Decreased secretion +++ ; beta-2: Increased secretion +
Cholinergic impulse on Islets (beta cells) of Pancreas
No response
Adrenergic impulse on Fat cells
alpha-2: Lipolysis +++ (thermogenesis) ; beta-1,2,3: Inhibition of Lipolysis
Cholinergic impulse on Fat cells
No response
Adrenergic impulse on Salivary glands
alpha-1: K+ and water secretion + ; beta: Amylase secretion +
Cholinergic impulse on Salivary glands
K+ and water secretion +++
Adrenergic impulse on Nasopharyngeal glands
No response
Cholinergic impulse on Nasopharyngeal glands
Secretion++
Adrenergic impulse on Pineal gland
beta: Melatonin synthesis
Cholinergic impulse on Pineal gland
No response
Adrenergic impulse on Posterior Pituitary
beta-1: Antidiuretic hormone secretion
Cholinergic impulse on Posterior Pituitary
No response