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40 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
P presents H/O aortic insufficiency; c CHF, good BP, what else can you expect to find?
s3 gallop, diastolic murmur L sternal border and pulmonary rales.
what would be most likely diagnosis for aoritc insufficiency in a P c a normal mitral valve?
rheumatic heart disease
p presents with carotid pulse c quick upstroke and a wide pulse pressure, most likely diagnosis ?
Aortic Regurg.
connective tissue that anchors a number of structures/organs that is Continuous folds of fatty tissue under and contiguous with the greater/lesser omentum?
Messentery
glandular structures that open into the spaces between the villi in the sm. intes.
Crypt of Lieberkuhn
the esophagus opens into the stomach through a small opening called the ?
cardiac orifice
name the layers of the tube that makes up the GI tract from inside to out
inner luminal layer or mucosal, submucosal, circular, longitudinal, outer muscularis.
the largest serous membrane of the body
peritoneum; the cavity/ potential space formed between the parietal peritoneum and the visceral peritoneum.
a filmy double fold of peritoneal membrane, extends from the stomach to cover the transverse colon and folds of intestine; protects intest. from cold, controls spread of infection by enveloping inflamed area.
greater omentum
continuous movements in the GI tract that can last from minutes to hours, occur at sphincters
tonic mvmts
the rhythmic propulsive movemments in the GI tract that occur when the smooth muscle layer constricts; forms a contractile band that forces interluminal contents forward
peristaltic mvmts
what controls GI function?
enteric nervous system, parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions of the ANS.
name the two networks of intramural neurons in the enteric nervous system, that are contained within the wall of the GI tract; are aggregates of ganglionic cells that extend along the length of the GI wall.
myenteric and submucosal plexuses.
what is the name of the myenteric plexus that is located between the circular muscle and longitudinal muscle layers?
Auerbach's
what is the name of the submucosal plexus that is between the mucosal layer and the circular layers of muscle?
Meissner's
a specific carrier for b12, secreted by the parietal cells of the stomach
intrinsic factor
enzymes secreted by the enterocytes of the sm. intestines that aid in the digestion of carbs & proteins. they adhere to the border of the villus structures.
brush border enzymes.
what is the major site of fat absorbtion?
the upper jejunum
what is the term used to describe fatty stools?
steatorrhea
name the enzyme precursor of pepsin that is secreted by the chief cells in response to a meal and acid pH;
pepsinogen
in the small intestines, what is the name of the layer of villi, a tissue, with blood vessels and lymphatic vessels?
lamina propia
a mucosal associated lymphatic tissue in the lamina propia (that contains the immunoglobulins, b/t lymphs, macrophages...)that is considered the immunity of the gut!
Lacteal
what is the primary pathway for peristalsis?
Parasympathetic pathway! AcH is the #1 neurotransmitter responsible for it.
True or False: the sympathetic nervous system slows down the GI tract?
true: it is the opposite of the para/syp innervation of the heart.
what are some of the manifestations of taking an anti-cholenergic drug??
constipation, urinary incont., interference w/ the parasymp.
what is the proper term for a paralytic obstruction?
ileus
what are some causes of ileus?
#1 adhesions, trauma to spinal cord, drug-related ileus, peritonitis, tumor
abnormal epithelia tissue in the colon?
adenomatous polyps
how do you treat active TB?
RIPE! abx."vancomyacin" Rifampin, Isoniazid, PZA, ethambutol
what are the most common etiologies for hepatitis?
#1 viral (a,b,c,e) alcohol,
what are some manifestations of peritonitis?
guarding, abd tenderness, rebound tenderness, bulborigine. late findings: increased WBC, left shift, KUB (would see loops of bowels, fecalith etc.)
what are the glands that begin the process of digestion?
salivary glands; parotid, submandibular
what are the names of the ducts that secrete the salivary glands that being the digestion process?
wharton's and stenson's ducts
name two digestive enzymes that breakdown foodstuffs
amylase, lipase
name the vitamin deficiency that produces an anemia?
Pernicious Anemia; causes a malabsorbtion of B12 as antibodies attack intrinsic factor
describe the enterohepatic circulation?
reabsorbtion of bile and intrinsic factor at the terminal ileum
what is bile made of?
heme from hemoglobin, cholesterol, bi-carb, electrolytes
what is the name of the digestive hormone that stimulates motility/contractility of the gall bladder, secreted by the duodenum
CCK: cholecystokinin
what are the two endocrine functions of the pancreas?
secrete glucagon and insulin
what is the term for the obstruction of bile flow?
cholestasis.