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43 Cards in this Set

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What are the names of the supporting cells in the CNS and PNS and what are their functions?
- glial cells in the CNS - Schwann cells in the PNS - supporting cells protect the nervous system and provide metabolic support for the neurons
What are the 3 parts of the neuron?
1. cell body (or soma) 2. dendrites - conduct information to the cell body 3. axons - carry impulses away from the cell body
What is the blood-brain barrier?
- a term used to emphasize the impermeability of the nervous system to large or potentially harmful molecules - composed of astrocytes and tightly joined endothelial cells of the capillaries in the CNS
What are characteristics of myelin?
- increases the velocity of nerve impulse conduction in axons - has a high lipid contents, which gives it a whitish color (white matter is myelinated fibers of the spinal cord and brian) - produced by Schwann cells in the PNS and oligodendroglia cells in the CNS
Name 2 disorders of myelin degeneration
1. multiple sclerosis in the CNS 2. Guilliain-Barré syndrome in the PNS
What are the 2 types of supporting cells in the PNS?
Schwann cells and satellite cells
What are nodes of Ranvier?
- short extracellular fluid gaps where the myelin is missing and where volage-gated sodium channels are concentrated. - increases nerve conduction by allowing the impulse to jump from node to node through the extracellular fluid (called saltatory conduction)
What are the names and functions of the 4 supporting cells in the CNS?
1. Oligoentroglial cells - form the myelin in the CNS 2. Astrocytes - provide a tranposrt mechanism for the exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and metabolites 3. Microglial - phagocytic cell for cleaning up debris after cellular damage, infection, or cell death 4. Ependymal cell - forms the lining of the neural tube cavity and the ventricular system. also forms the choroid plexus where CSF production takes place
What are the 3 phases of the action potential?
1. resting or polarized state 2. depolarization 3. repolarization
What is threshold potential?
represents the membrane potential at which nurons or other exitable tissues are stimulated to fire
What causes repolarization?
the closure of sodium channels and opening of potassium channels
What is the difference between hypopolarization and hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic membrane?
- hypopolarization increase the excitability of the postsynaptic neuron by bringing the membrane potential closer to the threshold potential - hyperpolarization brings the membrane potential further from the threshold and has an inhibitory effect
What are 3 major types of neurotransmitters?
1. amino acids (ie glutamic acid and GABA) 2. Peptides (ie endorphins and enkephalins) 3. monamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine)
What are the 4 major plexuses in the PNS?
- cervical plexus - brachial plexus - lumbar plexus - sacral plexus
What are the 3 regions of the brain and name structures associated with each region?
1. Hindbrain - includes medulla oblongata, the pons, and the cerebellum 2. Midbrain - includes the superior and inferior colliculi 3. Forebrain - consists of 2 hemispheres covered by the cerebral cortex, central masses of gray matter, the basal ganglia, and the diencephalon
What is the tentorium cerebelli?
a fold of dura mater that separates the cerebellum from the cerebral hemispheres
What are functions of the cerebellum?
- receives proprioceptor input from the vestibular system - receives feedback from muscles, tendons, and joints - receives indirect signals from the somesthetic, visual, and auditory systems that provide background information for ongoing movment - dampening of muscle movement
Which cranial nerves originate from the medulla?
CN 7-12
Which cranial nerves exit the midbrain?
cranial nerves III & IV
What are the cerebral peduncles?
- two prominent bundles of nerve fibers that pass along the ventral surface of the midbrain - fibers include the corticospinal tracts - main motor pathway between the forebrain and the pons
What are the functions of the superior and inferior colliculi?
- superior colliculi are involved in controlling conjugate eye movements - inferior colliculi is involved in directional turning and experiencing the direction of sound waves
What is the corpus callosum?
- a massive bridge of myelinated axons that connects the cerbral cortex of the two sides of the brain
What are strucutures make up the basal ganglia?
- caudate nucleus - putamen - globus pallidus
What structures make up the lentiform nucleus?
globus pallidus and putamen
What are the functions of the thalamus?
- coordination and intergratio of peripheral sensory stimuli - relays criticial information regarding motor activities to and from selected areas of the motor cortex
What are functions of the hypothalamus?
- is the area of master-level integration of homeostatic control of the body's internal environment - controls maintenance of blood gas concentration, water balance, food consomption, and major aspects of endocrine and autonomic nervous system control
What is the function of the basal ganglia?
- supplies axial and proximal pstures and movements, which enhance and add gracefulness to UMN-controlled manipulative movements - ex. arm swing during walking and running; follow-through movement involved in throwing a ball
What is the function of the temporal lobe?
• important in discrimination of sounds entering opposite ears • important in long-term memory recall
What structures make up the limbic system?
- the limbic cortex (cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, uncus) and associated subcortical structures (thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala)
What is the function of the limbic system?
- involved in emotional experience and in the control of emotion-related behavior
What is the reticular formation?
• located in the pons and medulla • contains networks controlling basic breathing, eating, and locomotion functions
What menigeal layer contains CSF?
CSF is contained in the subarachnoid space
Trace the flow of CSF from the lateral ventricles to the subarachnoid space
Lateral ventricles » Interventricular foramen » 3rd ventricle » Cerebral aqueduct » 4th ventricle » to exit into subarachnoid space
What are the names of the openings that allow the CSF to pass into the subarachnoid space?
• Foramina of Luschka • Foramina of Magendie
What are the 2 barriers that enable the brain to maintain a stable chemical environment?
• Blood-Brain barrier • CSF-brain barrier
What are the 3 components of the blood-brain barrier?
• astrocyte • capillary basement membrane • tight junctions that join the overlapping capillary endothelial cells
How does the brain remove toxic waste products from the CNS?
A major function of the CSF is removal of toxic waste products
How does CSF get reabsorbed into the vascular system?
• reabsorption occurs along the sides of the superior sagittal sinus in the anterior and middle fossa through arachnoid villi
What part of the brain serves as the major control center for most autonomic-mediated functions, such as thermoregulation, thirst, and appetite?
hypothalamus
Where is acetylcholine released?
• at all preganglionic synapses in autonomic ganglia of sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers • postganglionic synapses of all parasympathetic nerve endings • at sympathetic nerve endings that innervate sweat glands and vasodilator fibers in skeletal muscles
Where is norepinephrine release at?
sympathetic nerve endings
What neurotransmitter is a precursor to norepinephrine?
dopamine
The catecholamines are synthesized from what amino acid?
tyrosine