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67 Cards in this Set

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What are the components of protoplasm?
• Water (70 - 85%)
• Protein (10 - 20%)
• Lipids (2 - 3%)
• Carbohydrates
• Electrolytes
How is chromatin organized?
DNA Molecule > Histones > Nucleosomes > Chromatin > Chromosomes
What is Heterochromatin?
• less active, condense chromosome in a non-dividing cell
• stains more intensly
What is Euchromatin?
• transcriptionally more active
• stain is less intense
What are some characteristics of cells that are actively synthesizing proteins?
Euchromatic nuclei and prominent nucleolus
What is the structure and function of the nucleolus?
- site of RNA transcription
- structures composed of regions from 5 different chromosomes
What are the 4 functions of smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
- lipid synthesis
- regulation of intracellular calcium
- metabolism
- detoxification of certain drugs and hormones
What is the function of the Golgi Apparatus?
modification and packaging of substances for secretion or transport
Give an example of the Golgi Complex breaking up a large protein into a smaller active form
The Golgi Complex in the beta cells of the pancreas cuts apart Pro-insulin (the inactive form of insulin) into its smaller, active form
What is a secondary lysosome?
lysosomes with active enzymes and that have begun the chemical degradation process
Describe the process of heterophagocytosis
- uptake of material from outside the cell

- phagosome (an infolding of the cell membrane that contains external material) joins with a primary lysosome to become a secondary lysosome
What is autophagocytosis?
the removal of damaged cellular organelles for the cell to continue normal function
Describe Tay-Sachs Disease
- a lysosomal storage disease
- an autosomal recessive disorder
- hexosaminidazse A (a lysosomal enzyme used to breakdown GM2 ganglioside) is deficient

-GM2 ganglioside accumulates in the heart, liver, spleen and causes the most damage in the nervous system and retina
What are the 3 functions of perioxisomes?
- degrade peroxides (ex. hydrogen peroxide)
- control free radicals
- breakdown long-chained fatty acids
What is the most common disorder of perioxisomes?
Adrenoleukodystrophy, a build-up of long-chain fatty acids in the nervous system and adrenal gland, can cause dementia and adrenal insufficiency
What are 3 functions of microtubules?
- development and maintenance of cell form
- intracellular transport and cell movement
- formation of the basic structure for complex organelles (centrioles, basal bodies, cila, flagella)
What are centrioles?
they form the mitotic spindle that aids in the separation and movement of the chromosomes during cell division
What is hematocrit on a CBC?
The percentage of red blood cells in a volume of blood. For example, a hematocrit of 38 means that 38% of the blood's volume is composed of red cells.
Glucose is transported into the cells by this process
facilitated diffusion
Why are diabetics predisposed to infection?
microtubule dysfunction can alter leukocyte mobility and migration, interfering with the inflammatory response
What are two effects of immobile cilia syndrome?
- male sterility by impairing sperm motility
- Bronchiectasis, by immobilizing the cilia of the respiratory tract, and interfering with clearance of inhaled bacteria
What are the functions of microfilaments?
- muscle contraction (via thick and thin filaments)
- movement of cell during endocytosis & exocytosis
- support & maintain asymmetrical shape
3 types of proteins found in the plasma membrane
- transmembrane
- integral
- peripheral
What is the glycocalyx?
the cell coat that contains tisuue antigens (in RBCs the ABO antigens); participates in cell-to-cell recognition and adhesion
Name some lipid-soluble molecules that can cross directly through the cell membrane
CO2, O2, alcohol, fatty acids, steroid hormones
What are cytokines?
hormone-like growth factors that control the proliferation and differentiation and functional abilities of various blood blood cells
What is the cause of cystic fibrosis?
an abnormal chloride channel that causes increased reabsorption of sodium & water, which causes respiratory tract secretions to thicken and occlude the airways
What are the 4 ways to transmit information between cells?
• Autocrine signaling - a cell releasing a chemical into the extracellular fluid that
affects its own activity
• Paracrine signaling - targets nearby cells
• Endocrine signaling - hormones carried in the blood to cells throughout the body
• Synaptic signaling - neurotransmitters acting on adjacent neurons
What is down-regulation?
A decrease in cell surface receptors caused by excessive chemical messengers
What is up-regulation?
An increase in cell receptors, caused by a decrease in chemical messengers
What is signal transduction?
When a chemical messenger exerts their effects by binding to cell membrane proteins or receptors that convert the chemical signal into signals within the cell
What is the most common secondary messenger?
Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate (cAMP)
Which toxin binds and activates the stimulatory G protein that controls the secretion of fluid into the intestine?
• Vibrio Cholerae causes sever diarrhea and life-threatening depletion of extracellular fluid volume
• produces "rice-water" stools
What types of cells are involved in ion-channel-linked receptors?
Nerve and muscle cells (electrially excitable cells)
What is catabolism?
Breakdown of stored nutrients and body tissues to produce energy
What is anabolism?
Formation of complex structures from simpler ones
What is the site of anaerobic respiration?
the cytoplasm
The net yield of ATP in glycolysis is:
Two molecules of ATP
What is gluconeogenesis and what organ performs it?
Gluconeogenesis is the removal of lactic acid from the bloodstream by converting it into glucose. This is done by the liver.
What are the 3 types of passive transport?
Diffusion, Osmosis, and Facilitated Diffusion
What are the two types of active transport?
Primary and secondary active transport
What are the 2 types of endocytosis and their definitions?
Pinocytosis - ingestion of small solid or fluid particles

Phagocytosis - engulfment and degradation of mocroorganisms and other particulate matter
Name 2 cells that perform phagocytosis
Macrophages and neutrophils
What are the four categories of tissue?
1. Epithelial Tissue
2. Connective Tissue
3. Muscle Tissue
4. Nerve Tissue
Epithelium orginates from which muscle layer?
All three layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm)
True or False: Epithelial cells receive oxygen via blood vessels
False, epithelial tissue is avascular
Name the 3 shapes of epithelial tissue
- squamous (thin and flat)
- cuboidal (cube shaped)
- columnar (resembling a column)
What are the 3 classifications by layer of epithelial cells?
Simple, stratified, and pseudostratified
Where would you find simple squamous epithelium?
Lining of blood vessls, body cavities, lymph nodes, & alveoli of lungs

* Simple squamous epithelium is adapted for filtration
Where would you find cuboidal squamous epithelium?
• The surface of the ovary and the thyroid
• collecting tubules of kidneys
Where would you find simple columnar epithelium?
Lining of the intestine and gallbladder
Goblet cells are composed of what type of tissue? Where are Goblet cells located?
Goblet cells are simple columnar epithelium.

They are specialized mucus-secreting cells with cilia that line the respiratory tract.
What is the name of the extracellular matrix that lies beneath all epithelial tissue?
Basement membrane or basal lamina
Where is stratified squamous keratinized epithelium found?
Skin
Where is stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium found?
Linings of mouth, anus, vagina, tongue, & esophagus
Where is stratified cuboidal epithelium located?
Ducts of sweat glands
What are the 3 types of exocrine glands?
• Holocrine
• merocrine (or eccrine)
• apocrine glands
Where would you find dense regular connective tissue?
Tendons and aponeuroses
What is the function of Gap Junctions?
Gap Junctions (or nexus junctions) involve the close adherance of adjoining cell membranes with channels that link the two cells.

Important in cell-to-cell conduction of electrical signals (i.e. cardiac muscle and smooth muscle)
Where is areolar tissue located?
• subcutaneous areas
• fills spaces between myelin shealths & forms a layer that encases blood and lymphatic vessels
Where would you find dense irregular connective tissue?
• dermis of the skin
• fibrous capsules surrounding organs
• perichondrium
• periosteum
Where would you find reticular tissue?
Framework of lymphoid organs, bone marrow, & liver
What are the 3 types of specialized connective tissue?
Bone, cartilage, and hematopoietic (blood & bone marrow)
Which neurons carry information towards the CNS?
Sensory neurons (afferent)
Which neurons carry information away from the CNS?
Motor (or efferent) neurons
Which cells provide myelination of the neurons in the CNS and PNS, respectively?
Oligodendrocytes in the CNS; Schwann cells in the PNS
Name and describe the 4 types of glial cells in the CNS
- Astrocytes are the most abundant & provide structural support and surround blood vessels

- Oligodendrocytes provide myelination

- Microglial cells are phagocytic cells

- Ependymal cells line the cavities of the brain and spinal cord & are in contact with CSF