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18 Cards in this Set

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What are the 5 types of lipoproteins?
1. chylomicrons
2. VLDL
3. IDL
4. LDL
5. HDL
What are the 2 sites of lipoprotein synthesis?
the small intestines and the liver
What is familial hypercholesterolemia?
an autosomal dominant disorder due to a mutation in the gene specifying the receptor for LDL, resulting in high cholesterol levels
What are xanthomas?
cholesterol deposits along tendons due to elevated cholesterol levels
What 3 dietary elements affect cholesterol?
1. excess calorie intake
2. saturated fats
3. cholesterol
What are 5 types of medications available for treating hypercholesterolemia?
1. statins - block hepatic synthesis of cholesterol
2. bile acid-binding resins - (cholestyramine, colestipol, and colesevelam)
3. cholesterol absorption inhibitor agents
4. niacin
5. fibrates
What are the various classifications of LDL according to ATP III?
• < 100 = optimal
• 100 - 129 = near optimal/above optimal
• 130 - 150 = borderline high
• 160 - 189 = high
• > 190 = very high
What are the classifications of HDL according to ATP III?
• < 40 = Low
• > 60 = high
What are the classifications of total cholesterol?
• < 200 = desirable
• 200 - 239 = borderline high
• > 240 = high
What is the classification of serum triglycerides according to ATP III?
• < 150 = normal
• 150 - 199 = borderline high
• 200 - 499 = high
• > 500 = very high
What are major positive risk factors for hyperlipidemia?
factors that increase risk for hyperlipidemia:

• age (men > 45 & women > 55)
• CHD in male 1st degree relative > 55 y/o
• CHD in female 1st degree relative > 65 y/o
• HTN or HTN meds (beta-blockers)
• low HDL
• smoking
What is a negative risk factor for hyperlipidemia?
factors that reduce risk for hyperlipidemia:

• high HDL ( > 60)
What is the MOA of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (aka statins)?
inhibits enzyme that is responsible for converting HMG-CoA to Mevalonate (rate limiting step in production of cholesterol)
What are side effects of the statins?
• myalgias/arthralgias
• increased liver function tests (LFTs)
Give examples of statins
• Fluvastatin (Lescol)
• Pravastatin (Pravachol)
• Lovastatin (Mevacor)
• Simvastatin (Zocor)
• Atorvastatin (Lipitor)
• Rosuvastatin (Crestor)
What is the MOA of Bile Acid Seqestrants?
• binds to bile acids to disrupt enterohepatic recirculation of bile acids
• stimulates the liver to convert hepatocellular cholesterol into bile acids
What are some risk factors for atherosclerosis?
• cigarette smoking
• diabetes
• hypercholesterolemia
• hypertension
• obesity
What are sites of severe atherosclerosis in order of frequency?
• abdominal aorta and iliac arteries
• proximal coronary arteries
• thoracic aorta, femoral, & popliteal arteries
• internal carotid arteries
• vertebral, basilar, and middle cerebral arteries