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35 Cards in this Set

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What is the difference between innate and adaptive immunity?
• Innate is non-specific, using bacterial barriers and phagocytes (macrophages & neutrophils)
• Adaptive immunity responds to focused recognition and responses specific to the foreign substance, using lymphocytes
Name and describe the 2 types of adaptive immunity
• Humoral Immunity: mediated by molecules in the blood and defends against extracellular microbes and toxins
• Cell-mediated immunity: mediated by T lymphocytes and defends against intracellular microbes such as viruses
What is hapten and how does in function as an antigen?
a hapten is a low-molecular-weight compound that can function as an antigen when combined with a larger protein molecule ex. penicillin
Name the 2 types of T lymphocytes
• CD4-helper T cells which enhance the response of other T cells
• CD8+ cytotoxic T cells which destroy cellular antigens such as tumor cells and virus-infecte d cells
What is the function of the Major Histocompatibility Complex Molecule (MHC)?
distinguishing self for non-self molecules
What are the two types of MHC molecules?
Class I and Class II
What are the differences in Class 1 MHC and Class 2 MHC?
• Class 1 MHCs are on virtually alll nucleated cells and present the processed antigen to cytotoxic CD8+ T cells
• Class 2 MHCs are found primarily on antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, & B lymphocytes and communicate with CD4 molecule on helper T lymphocytes
What are some of the functions of macrophages?
• when activated, they engulf and digest antigens
• can amplify inflammatory response and initiate adaptive immunity
How does a B cell becomes stimulated to produce antibodies?
• B cell encounters an antigen that is complementary to its receptor

• functions as an APC by breaking down the antigen and binding it to an MHC II molecule

• the antigen peptide-class II MHC complex is recognized by helper T cells which stimulate cytokines

• cytokines trigger the multiplication and maturation of antigen-activated B cells to become plasma cells which produce antibodies
What are the 5 classes of immunoglobins (antibodies)?
IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, IgE
What are some characteristics of IgG?
• most abundant of the circulating immunoglobins
• only immunoglobin that can cross the placenta
• present in body fluids and readily enters tissues
• protects against bacteria, toxins, viruses in body fluids
• activates the complement system
What are some characteristics of IgA immunoglobins?
• found in body secretions (saliva, nasal & respiratory secretions, breast milk, tears)
• primary defense against local infections in mucosal tissues
• prevents attachment of viruses and bacteria in epithelial cells
What are some characteristics of IgM?
• 10% of total immunoglobins
• the first immunoglobin to appear in response to an antigen
• first antibody made in a newborn
• cannot cross the placenta
What are some characteristics of IgD?
• 0.2% of total
• found on the cell membrane of B cells
• needed for maturation of B cells; initiates differentiation of B cells
What are some characteristics of IgE?
• 0.004% of total
• involved in inflammation, allergic responses, and combating parastic infections
• binds to mast cells and basophils which trigger these cells to release histamine
What is the functions of T lymphocytes?
• activation of other T cells and B cells
• control of intracellular viral infections
• rejection of foreign tissue grafts
• delayed hypersensitivity reactions
What are the subpopulations of helper T cells?
Th1 or Th2
What are some characteristics of Th1?
• stimulated for differentiation by microbes
• secretes IFN-gamma
• enhances inflammation and cell-mediated immunity
• activates macrophages
What are some characteristics of Th2?
• stimulated for differentiation by allergens or parastic worms
• secretes IL-4 & IL-5
• enhances B cells and antibody response
• promotes secretion of IgE
What are some characteristics of natural killer cells?
• effector cell that can kill tumor cells, virus-infected cells, or intracellular microbes
• do not need to recognize a specific antigen before being activated
• immune surveillance for cancerous or virus-infected cells
What are example of central lymphoid organs?
bone marrow and thymus
Give example of peripheral lymphoid organs
lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, appendix, Peyer's patches in the intestine, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in the respiratory, GI, and reproductive systems
What is the 2 functions of lymph nodes?
• removal of foreign material from lymph before it enters the bloodstream
• serves as centers for proliferation and response of immune cells
What are some characteristics of cytokines?
• regulatory proteins that are produced during all phases of an immune response
• modulate reactions of the host to foreign antigens by regulating the movement, proliferation, and differentiation of leukocytes and other cells
Which cytokines are the major mediators of the early inflammatory response?
IL-1, IL-6, TNF
What are some key cytokines in innate immunity and inflammation?
IL-1, IL-6, TNF, IFNs, & IL-12
What are some key cytokines in adaptive immunity?
IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, and IFN-gamma
What is active immunity?
immunity that is aquired by immunization or having the disease
What is passive immunity?
• immunity transferred from another source
• ex. mother transferring immunity of an infant via breast milk
What are the two types of responses that occur in humoral immunity?
primary and secondary immune response
Give some characteristics of the primary immune response
• occurs when the antigen is first introduced in the body
• there is a latent period before the antibody can be detected in the serum
• during latent period, the antigen is being processed by APCs and recognized by helper T cells > T cells recognized the antigen peptide-class II MHC complex and release cytokines > cytokines stimulate B cells to produce antibodies
Describe the secondary immune response
memory cells recognize the antigen and respon more efficiently to produce a specific antibody
What is the complement system?
• a primary effector system for innate and adaptive immunity

• when activated, results in enhanced inflammatory responses, lysis of foreign cells, and increased phagocytosis

• deposits complement protein fragments on the pathogen surface, proudcing tags for better recogntion by the receptors on phagocytic cells
What are the 5 effects of the complement system?
• mediate cell lysis

• opsonization - the coating of antigen-antibody complexes with complement proteins so that antigens are engulfed and cleared more efficiently by macrophages

• chemotaxis - chemical attraction of neutrophils and phagocytic cells to the antigen

• anaphylaxsis - activation of mast cells or basophils to replease histamine, which produces contraction of smooth muscle, increased vascular permeability, and edema
Define tolerance (in terms of immunity)
• the ability of the immune system to be nonreactive to self antigens while producing immunity to foreign antigens

• protects an individual from harmful autoimmune reactions