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38 Cards in this Set

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what's the difference between hypoxia and ischemia?
ischemia interferes with delivery of oxygen, glucose and the removal of metabolic waste, whereas hypoxia only deals with oxygen
what is the principal excitatory NTS in the brain?
glutamate
There are 2 types of neurons in the CNS: macroneurons and microneurons, which ones are most numerous?
Microneurons, they provide the analytic, integrative, and learning circuitry
which NTS is assoc. with causing brain damage?
Glutamate
What is vasogenic edema?
blood-brain barrier allows transfer of water and protein from the vascular into the interstitial space
What is cytotoxic edema?
swelling of brain cells due to osmotic conditions; result in stupor and coma
what are 2 causes of hydrocephalus?
decreased absorption of CSF
overproduction of CSF

They lead to increase in CSF volume in the ventricles
what are the 2 types of hydrocephalus?
Noncommunicating (obstructive) - obstruction in the ventricular system prevents the CSF from reaching the arachnoid villi

Communicating - impaired reabsorption of CSF from the arachnoid villi
what are S/Sx of >ICP
headache
vomiting
papilledema
lateral rectus palsy(from pres.on CNs)
what are the 3 groups of skull fractures?
simple
depressed
basilar
what do you expect to find in a basilar skull fracture?
A shattered cribriform plate
Possible CSF leak from nose and ears
MCC of secondary brain injury?
Ischemia
Define concussion
a momentary interuption of brain function with or without loss of consciousness
which artery is most often torn in an epidural hematoma?
middle meningeal artery; usually in assoc. with a skull fracture
Describe the different classes of subdural hematomas
Acute- Sx within 24 hrs
Subacute- Sx 2-10 days after
Chronic- Sx several wks after injury
Impaired consciousness, decorticate posturing, cheyne-stokes resp. are assoc. with this type of brain injury
Diencephalon
Coma, decerebrate posturing, hyperventilation are assoc. with injury to this part of the brain
Midbrain
Coma, fixed, irregular pupils; loss of corneal reflex are assoc. with injury to this part of the brain
Pons
coma, flaccidity, loss of gag and cough reflex are assoc. with injury to this part of the brain
Medulla
how does someone in a stupor state present?
not unconscious but exhibits little or no spontaneous activity
T/F Cocaine can cause both,ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke
True
a stroke in this artery is the MC aphasia-producing stroke
middle cerebral artery
this disease involves swelling of the spinal cord, which disrupts central nervous system functions linking the brain and limbs
Myelitis
Name the organisms most commonly involved in bacterial meningitis
Strep pneumoniae(pneumococcus)
H. influenzae
Neisseria meningitidis

In neonates (MC is GBHS)
What does meningococcal meningitis cause?
a petechial rash with palpable purpura
what would lab results show with bacterial meningitis
>WBCs PMNs ~ 70-90k
>protein
<glucose
what is the Tx of bacterial meningitis?
antibiotics and corticosteroids
what are the lab results for viral meningitis?
Lymphocytes in CSF
Protein only moderately elevated
Glucose is normal
what are some viruses that cause of encephalitis?
Herpes simplex virus
HIV
Arbovirus(mosquito bite)
Rabies virus animal bite)
Poliovirus(ingestion)
this brain tumor is most common in immunocompromised patients and are assoc. with EBV and derived from B cells
Primary CNS Lymphomas
what are some clinical manifestations of brain tumors?
n/v
papilledema
Headache
Altered sensory/motor fx
Seizures
diplopia
what is the treatments for brain tumors?
surgery
irradiation
chemotherapy
this type of seizure is confined to one hemisphere and does not involve loss of consciousness
simple partial seizure
this type of seizure begins in a localized area, spreads to both hemispheres, and involves loss of consciousness
Complex partial seizures
These seizures are non-convulsive expressed by brief periods of unconsciousness
Absence seizure
What drugs are used to treat seizures?
phenytoin
ethosuximide- for absence
phenobarbital
carbamazepine
clonazepam
valproate
Name some causes of viral meningitis
Herpes virus
EBV
Adenovirus
CMV
MCC of meningitis in children
Meningococcal
H. influenzae