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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
this motor system provides the background for the more crude supportive movementss
Extrapyramidal system (basal ganglia)
this motor system controls delicate muscle movement
Pyramidal motor system; originates in the motor cortex
what type of lesion will present with increased muscle tone and spastic paralysis
UMN lesion (pyramidal)

what type of lesion will present with decreased or absent muscle tone and flaccid paralysis
LMN lesion (extrapyramidal)

what does the pyramidal system consist of?
the motor pathways from the motor cortex terminating at the corticobulbar fibers of the brainstem and corticospinal fibers in the spinal cord.
what is one of the outstanding features of LMN lesions?
muscle atrophy and loss of stretch reflexes
this is an X-linked disorder producing progressive deterioration of muscle because of pseudo hypertrophy(> in muscle due to CT infiltration), atrophy,or necrosis.
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
This is an autoimmune disease caused by an antibody-mediated loss of ACH receptors in the neuromuscular junction.
Myasthenia Gravis
what do 75% of people with myasthenia Gravis also have?
Thymus tumor or hyperplasia; therefore T-cells are thought to have a key role
what are some initial symptoms of Myasthenia Gravis?
Ptosis and diplopia due to muscle weakness. Can progress to generalized weakness.
This is a demyelinating polyneuropathy characterized by progressive ascending muscle weakness
Guillain-Barre syndrome
where do 90-95% of lumbar herniations occur?
what is the straight-leg test used for?
To test for herniated disks
this is a degenerative disorder of basal ganglia (dopamine nigrostriatal system) that results in tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia
Parkinson's Disease
How do you treat Parkinson's
Levodopa - is absorbed in the GI tract, crosses the blood-brain barrier and converted to dopamine in the brain
this is an immune-mediated demyelinating disease of the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerve.
Multiple sclerosis

Plaques are formed due to myelin breadown
what are the manifestations of MS?
commonly affected areas:

speech and swallowing
muscle strength
gait and coordination
nerves used in pincer grasp
Ulnar and median nerve
which nerve allows spreading of the fingers apart
Ulnar nerve (ennervates the interosseous muscles
this nerve allows you to hitch-hike
Radial nerve
paralysis of this nerve causes wrist-drop (inability to dorsiflex)
Radial nerve
what is dysesthesia?
painful sensation caused by normal stimuli
This disease affects the neuro muscular junction and causes ptosis, lidlag and muscle weakness
Myesthenia Gravis
what are some causes of hemorrhagic stroke?
Aneurysm rupture
AVM-arterial/venous malformation