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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the 2 parts of the respiratory system
the conducting airways

the respiratory tissues of the lungs
what does the conducting airways consist of?
the nasal passages, mouth and pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles
this part of the resp. system is made up of: pseudostratified columnar epithelium
goblet cells
cilia
The conducting airways
function of the lungs
gas exchange
inactivate bradykinin
convert Angio I to Angio II
the conducting airways are supplied with blood by?
the bronchial circulation
Is the intrapleural pressure is always (negative or positive) in relation to alveolar pressure?
always negative in relation to alveolar pressure
the normal breath sounds
Bronchial
Vesicular
Bronchovesicular
abnormal breathsounds
adventitious:
rhonchi
wheezes
rales
crackles
which lung cells are involved in gas exchange
Type I alveolar cells
which lung cells produce surfactanct?
Type II alveolar cells
what is tidal volume
the amount of air that moves into and out of the lungs during a normal breath, usually around 500ml
what is the residual volume
the air thatremains in the lungs after forced expiration; about 1200ml.
The RV increases with age
MCC of community acquired pneumonia
Strep Pneumonia (gram +)
MCC of nosocomial acquired pneumonia
Pseudomonas (gram -)
S/Sx of strep pneumonia
rapid onset, productive cough, pleuritic pain, fever
name the 4 types of bronchogenic carcinoma
Small cell

Non-small cell:
adeno
large cell
squamous cell
organism responsible for the pneumonia assoc. with the highest morbidity & mortality in the world
TB
MCC of exudative pleural effusion
Pneumonia, TB (infectious)
MCCs of transudative pleural effusion
CHF, renal failure, cirrhosis;
dysfunction of large metabolic organs
Clubbing of the fingers suggest?
chronic lung disease; related to hypoxemia
the vaccine given to prevent epiglotitis
HIB - Hemophylis Influenza B
MC Bacterias assoc. with sinusitis
pneumococcus, M.cataralis, Hemophylis, pseudomonas;
these can also cause otitis media
Tx for COPD
corticoid steroids
B-adrenergics
the term for pus in the pleural space
Empyema
some causes of pleural effusion
pancreatitis, TB, cancer, pneumonia, uremia
how does left-sided H.F affect the lungs
increases pulmonary venous pressure leading to acumulation of blood in the pulmonary capillary bed and causing pulmonary edema
what happens to the blood vessels in the pulmonary circulation when they are exposed to hypoxia
they vasoconstrict; this also occurs when the pH is low
what happens in a physiologic shunt?
there is mismatching of ventilation and perfusion
what happens in an anatomic shunt?
blood moves from the venous to the arterial side of the circulation without moving through the lungs
Hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen is increased by which factors?
> pH
<carbon dioxide concentration
< temperature
3 ways in which carbon dioxide is transported in the blood
dissolved carbon dioxide (10%), attached to hemoglobin (30%), and as bicarbonate (60%).
these conditions favor the release of oxygen into the tissues
< pH
> temperature
> PCO2
The 2 receptors that control the automatic regulation of ventilation
chemoreceptors and lung receptors
these chemoreceptors sense changes in blood carbon dioxide content
Central Chemoreceptors: located in medulla, they are bathed in CSF. H+ ions in CSF provide stimulus
where are the peripheral chemoreceptors found?
in the carotid and aortic bodies, which are found at the bifurcation of the common carotid arteries and in the arch of the aorta,
The 3 types of lung receptors
stretch, irritant, and juxtacapillary receptors