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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Short term mechanisms of BP regulation
Neural and hormonal mechanisms
Where are the neural mechanisms located
in the reticular formation of the pons and medulla
intrinsic reflexes include
baroreflex and chemoreceptor-mediated reflex;
baroreceptors-in wall of vessels and heart
chemo-at carotid and oartic bodies
what happens when BP falls when going from lying to standing
< in strecch of baroreceptors; results in >HR and sympath induced vasoconstriction that causes > in PVR
Enzyme release by kidney when >sympath activity or a <BP or <xtra cellular Na conc.
Renin
what does renin do
moves to bloodstream where it converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
what does angiotensin I do
goes to vessels in lungs where it is converted to angiotensinogen II by ACE present in endothelium
function of angiotensinogen II
vasoconstricts arterioles, produces >in PVR
stims aldosterone secretion from adrenal gland which > salt and water retention by the kidneys
acts directly on renal tubules to > sodium reabsorption
what does ADH do
synthesized by hypothalamus, released by the post pituitary;
regulates water reabsorption by >permeability of collecting tubules to water

direct vasoconstriction of splanchnic vessels
This area of the brain contains the vasomotor and cardiac control cnters
often called the cardiovascular center, it is the pons and medulla; where integration and modulation of ANS responses occur
function of aldosterone
acts at the cortical collecting tubules to > sodium reabsorption while > potassium elimination
what regulates long term BP
kidneys by regulating extracellular fluid volume
factors that affect BP
blood volume
elasticity of vessels
CO
PVR
BP goal in pts with HTN, diabetes or renal disease
130/80
Initial drug Tx for stage II HTN
2 drug combo of thiazide and other (ACEI, ARB, BB, CCB)
common causes of secondary HTN
kidney disease
> levels of adrenalcortical hormones
pheochromocytoma
coarctation of aorta
sleep apnea
2 types of renovascular disease
atherosclerotic artery stenosis and fibromuscular sysplasia
what do you suspect if HTN develops in a previously normotensive person <30 and >50 y/o
Renal artery stenosis
what causes Cushing's syndrome
excess levels of glucocorticoids
function of aldosterone
acts on distal renal tubule to > Na absorption in exch for K elimination in urine.
That's why hyperaldosteronism causes < K levels
what is pheochromocytoma
a tumor in the adrenal medulla of the chromaffin tissue;
there's a paroxysmal > in catecholamine release causing headaches, sweating and palpitations.
Dx is by detection of catecholamines in urine
What is preeclampsia-Eclampsia
HTN in pregnant women that develops after 20 wks gestation accompanied by proteinuria