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31 Cards in this Set

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anemias caused by impaired production of RBCs
iron-deficiency, megaloblastic, and aplastic anemias
Anemia caused by increased destruction of RBCs
Hemolytic anemia
Manisfestations of anemias
Tissue hypoxia
Pallor
weakness
fatigue
dyspnea
angina
tachycardia
palpitations
systolic murmur form change in blood viscosity
manisfestation of hemolytic anemia
Jaundice from increased levels of bilirubin
manifestation of aplastic anemia
petechiae and purpura result from reduced platelet function
neural tube defects in pregnant women may be caused by
folic acid deficiency
What is anemia
abnormally low levels of RBCs or Hbg; it is not a disease but rather a manifestation of a disease process
causes of hemolytic anemia
sicle cell
thalassemia
inherited enzyme defects(G6PD)
This type of anemia is characterized by a decreased Hgb synthesis
Iron-deficiency anemia
What determines your blood type
the presence or absence of red cell antigens
Define polycythemia
hematocrit >50%
Relative -loss of plasma
Absolute- increase in RBCs
hemolytic disease of the newborn occurs in?
Rh+ infants of Rh- mohters;
maternal antibodies attact the Rh antigens of the baby
the most common hereditary bleeding disorder
Von Willebrand Disease
Thrombocytopenia levels
<100,100/ml
The final step in the blood clotting process
involves fibrinolyis or clot disolution which prevents excess clot formation
Induces platelet aggregation
release of thromboxane A2 and ADP
Plasminogen activators
promote formation of plamin which digests the fibrin strands
5 stages of hemostasis
vessel spasm
formation of platelet plug
coagulation/fibrin clot
clot retraction
clot dissolution
2 disorders of the hematopoeitic system
aplastic anemia
leukemia
what regulates blood cell productions
cytokines and growth factors
EPO, TPO, G-CSF, M-CSF, GM-CSF
CSF-colony stim factor
what's included in the CBC
count of:
RBCs
WBC
platelets
WBC differential
Hgb
Hct
MCV
MCHC-mean corpuscular hgb concentration
MCH-mean cell hemoglobin
MCC of iron defficiency anemia
Occult blood loss
What does PT measure?
the anticoagulant effect of warfarin and Vit K
What is the MOA of Warfarin?
Inhibits the synthesis of Vit K-dependent clotting factors:

II, VII, IX, X (1972)
Which factors participate in the clotting cascade?
Factors 8 and 10
Platelet
Calcium
PTT is extrinsic or intrinsic?
Intrinsic

PT is Extrinsic
Difference between TTP and HUS
TTP:
Neurological symptoms
Anemia
Renal failure

HUS:
No ALOC
Anemia
Greater increase in BUN
MCC of DIC
Obstetric complications assoc. with HELLP
What is DIC
Coagulation with resulting hemorrhage due to depletion of platelets and coagulation factors
What does LDH do?
converts lactic acid into pyruvic acid
A deficiency in this factor can lead to a hypercoagulable state
Factor V