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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
characteristics of COPD
hypoxemia (decreased O2 in blood)
hypercapnia (increased CO2 in blood)
diffusion block
shunt effect (venous return / cardiac output imbalance)
cyanosis
chest pain
dyspnea (short of breath)
digital clubbing
arterial blood gases
aterial pO2 (80-100mmHg)

arterial pCO2 (35-45mmHg)
hemoglobin O2 saturation
SaO2 (95-100%)
how much of blood is saturated with O2 in comparison to how much it can hold
respiratory acidosis
pH of body fluids (7.35-7.45)

COPD- decreased pH of body fluids (excessive carbonic acid in blood)
hypoventilation
retain higher amounts of CO2
Bronchial Asthma characteristics
hyperactive airway disease (things trigger airway constriction)
reversible (unike emphysema and chronic bronchitis)
wheezing (rhonchus)
deaths due to Asthma
5000 per year
(10,000,000 in US have asthma)
Asthma common triggers
house dust mites
cigarette smoke
cockroaches
hyperthyroidism
exercised induced
emotional distress
cold air
allergens (mold spores, pollen)
idiopathic
asthma pathogenesis
smooth muscle spasm (hyperactivity, airways spasm and become smaller, less passageway for air to move)
mucosal edema (airways are swollen and inflamed)
increased bronchial secretions (secretions get stuck in airways)
asthma S&S
perspiration
flared nostrils
wheezing
flushing
cough
respiratory distress
dyspnea
use of accesory respiratory muscles
apprehension
tachycardia
cyanosis
diminished breath sounds
intrinsic asthma
no childhood history
not IgE induced - no allergens
chronic sinusitis, nasal polyps
exercise induced
no family history
gastroephageal reflux disease
extrinsic asthma
allergen provoked
IgE mediated
exercise induced
cold temperature induced
mixed asthma
intrinsic and extrinsic components
pathophsiologic mechanism
inhalation of allergen
attachment to mast cell IgE
mast cell degranulation
histamine, SRS-A, leukotrienes
asthma
status asthmaticus
severe
intractable
rapid breathing - pCO@ falls (early on CO2 levels fall, blowing off too much CO2)
hypocapnea (low levels of CO2)
fatigue and exhaustion (using accessory muscles to ventilate)
breathing slows pCO2 rises (build up CO2)
hypercapnea (high levels of CO2)