Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/20

Click to flip

20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 4 main effects that Tumors have on hosts?
1. Local effects
2. Hormonal effects
3. Cancer cachexia
4. Paraneoplastic syndromes
What are the 4 local effects tumors can have on their hosts?
1. Destruction of normal tissues
2. Obstruction of hollow viscera
3. Ulceration through natural boundaries w/ resulting bleeding or infection
4. Tumor rupture or infarction
What are 3 examples of how tumors destroy the normal tissue?
-Pressure effects
-Direct destruction by invading
-Replacement of hematopoietic marrow
How can tumors cause hormonal effects?
By causing over-production of the hormone that is native to the site of tumor origin.
What is cancer cachexia?
The progressive loss of fat and muscle that leads to wasting.
What is NOT the cause of cancer cachexia?
Metabolic requirements of the tumor
What IS thought to be the cause of cachexia?
Excess secretion of TNF-alpha!
What are "Paraneoplastic Syndromes"?
Symptoms not accounted for by local or distant spread of tumor
Give 3 examples of paraneoplastic syndromes:
-Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy
-Endocrinopathies
-Neuromyopathies
If someone with a lung cancer presented with Cushings syndrome, would that be a hormonal side effect or paraneoplastic syndrome?
Paraneoplastic syndrome - the hormone is secreted by the tumor, not the actual gland.
What are pathologists more involved in; grading, or staging of tumors?
Grading
What is grading?
Assessment of the level of histologic differentiation, based solely on the histologic appearance.
What is staging?
The assessment of the extent of disease or tumor burden.
What makes a tumor increase in grade?
Lack of differentiation
What does grade of tumor tell about its aggressiveness?
Higher grade = more aggressive
What is the grading scale?
Depends on the tumor; could be low, intermed, or high, or 1-4
What is the most common staging system for tumors?
TNM
What does TNM stand for?
T = size of primary
N = regional lymph node involvement
M = distant metastasis
How do grading and staging usually correlate?
Usually similar
When grading and staging DON'T correlate, but are discrepant, which is more important?
Staging (TNM)