Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/73

Click to flip

73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does neoplasia mean?
Cancer
Why is it important to study cancer?
It is the 2nd leading cause of death in the US behind CV disease
Who is Cancer the leading cause of death in?
Patients under 85
Why is cancer causing death surpassing heart disease?
Because the incidence of death via heart disease is drastically lower.
What does "Tumor" mean?
Swelling
What is the definition of Neoplasia?
New growth
What is a Neoplasm?
-Abnormal mass of tissue
-Growth exceeds and is uncoordinated with normal growth
-Persists in excessive manner even after the stimulus for growth is gone
What is the dysequilibrium that neoplasms show?
-Excessive cell growth
-Inadequete cell death relative to the growth
Why do neoplasms grow so much?
They are not responsive to the normal growth controls and stimuli
What do we call the escape from normal control?
Autonomy
What is the manifestation of disordered, abnormal growth?
Abnormal architecture of tissues
What makes hyperplasia different from neoplasia?
Hyperplastic growth still responds to normal regulatory mechanisms.
How does hyperplastic tissue appear?
Normal architecturally
What is the most significant difference between neoplasms and hyperplasia?
Neoplasms: CLONAL, abnormal

Hyperplasia: Polyclonal, normal
What is metaplasia?
Conversion of one specialized tissue into another specialized tissue
What is the usual cause of metaplasia?
Noxious stimuli, chronic
What is dysplasia?
Deranged growth
What is an epithelial dysplasia?
Abnormal epithelia that is atypical and not normally organized
What are most epithelial dysplasias?
Neoplastic proliferations confined to the epithelium.
Why is dysplasia bad?
It has the potential to progress to invasive carcinoma
What is Parenchyma?
The functional tissue of an organ that distinguishes it from the connective and supportive tissue.
What is mesenchymal tissue?
Derived from mesodermal germ layer, the connective tissue.
What is the first step in classifying neoplasia?
Look at the number of parenchymal cell types.
If only one type of parenchymal cell is present, what do you look at?
Whether it is epithelial or mesenchymal (connective tissue).
Once you've determined if a neoplasm is epithelial or mesenchymal, what is the final decision to make?
Whether it is benign or malignant.
If there is more than one parenchymal cell type, what must be determined?
How many germ layers are represented.
What is the final step after determining what germ layers are present?
Determine if it's malignant or benign.
What is a benign tumor derived from glandular epithelium called?
An adenoma
How do you classify adenomas?
Based on the tissue of origin.
What do you call a mucinous or serous adenoma?
A cystadenoma
What is the most common type of ovarian neoplasm?
Serous or mucous cystadenomas
How are benign NONglandular epithelial tumors named?
After their cell of origin and architecture
What is the general term for malignant epithelial tumors?
Carcinoma
What do you call a malignant tumor derived from glandular epithelium?
Adenocarcinoma
When there is a particular tissue of origin for a malignant glandular epithelial tumor, eg from the kidney, what is it?
Renal cell carcinoma
What is the misnomer for naming a malignant tumor from liver cells?
Hepatoma - it is MALIGNANT
What is a further way to classify carcinomas?
Based on histogenesis
What are 2 types of different histologic breast carcinomas?
1. Ductal carcinoma of the breast
2. Lobular carcinoma of the breast
How are NONglandular malignancies classified?
Based on the tissue of origin
How are benign mesenchymal tumors named?
Based on the cell of origin plus OMA
What is a fibrous benign tumor?
What is a fatty benign tumor?
Fibroma
Lipoma
How is a malignant mesenchymal tumor named?
By adding SARCOMA to the tissue cell of origin
What would you call a malignant cardiac tumor?
Angiosarcoma
What are the 2 most critical features that denote MALIGNANCY versus benign?
-Ability to invade
-Ability to metastasize
What 4 factors must you look at in determining whether a neoplasm is benign or malignant?
1. Demarcation
2. Differentiation
3. Rate of growth
4. Distant spread
What type of demarcation is seen in benign neoplasms?
-Clearly visibly bounded
How does a benign tumor interact with surrounding tissues as it grows?
It compresses surrounding tissues as it expands.
What may result from atrophy of surrounding tissue and collagen deposition as a benign neoplasm grows?
Formation of a capsule
What type of demarcation is noted in malignant neoplasms?
Indistinct, jagged, stellate, and the tissue merely infiltrates surrounding tissue.
What does Differentiation mean?
The degree to which a tumor resembles the normal tissue from which it arose.
What are 2 types of differentiation?
-Morphologic
-Functional
What type of differentiation is characteristic of benign tumors?
Well differentiated
What type of differentiation is characteristic of malignant neoplasms?
Poorly differentiated
What does Anaplastic mean?
Completely undifferentiated
What does degree of differentiation indicate?
How aggressive a tumor is
So the least differentiation is a sign of:
Marked aggression
Really good differentiation is a sign of:
Not very aggressive
What are 4 ARCHITECTURAL indicators of decreasing differentiation?
1. Loss of normal polarization
2. Increased stratification
3. Loss of ability to form glands
4. Increased cellularity
What are 4 CELLULAR indicators of decreasing differentiation?
1. Pleomorphism
2. Nuclear hyperchromaticity
3. Abnormal mitotic figures
4. Prominent nucleoli
What rate of growth is characteristic of benign neoplasms?
Slow
What rate of growth is characteristic of malignant neoplasms?
-Rapid
-Erratic
What type of neoplasm would be very aggressive?
-Poorly differentiated
-Rapidly growing
What is the DREADED COMPLICATION of malignant tumors?
Metastasis
What is the only therapy once a malignancy has metastasized?
Systemic - Chemotherapy
What are 4 routes of metastasis?
1. Direct seeding
2. Lymphatic spread
3. Hematogenous spread
4. Transplantation
What is direct seeding?
The spread of a neoplasm within a body cavity by detachment and subsequent implantation; relatively uncommon
What are 2 common examples of direct seeding?
-Ovarian tumors with peritoneal seeding
-CNS tumors with seeding of the spinal cord or nerve roots
What is the major mode of carcinoma metastasis?
Lymphatic spread
What does the lymphatic spread of cancer have potential for?
Spreading into the peripheral blood via the thoracic duct which empties into the right SVC.
Where is the most likely place to see squamous carcinoma that has metastasized into a lymph node?
Subcapsular, where the afferents enter.
What is the major mode of metastasis for sarcomas?
Hematogenous
By what structures does hematogenous spread usually proceed?
Veins
What are the 4 main effects of neoplasms on hosts?
-Local effects
-Hormonal effects
-Tumor cachexia
-Paraneoplastic syndromes