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82 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What innate immune cells are the major defense against pyogenic bacteria?
What innate immune cells combat bacteria, viruses, and protozoa that can live within cells?
How do innate immune cells recognize pathogens?
By PRRs which see PAMPs on the microbes.
What is an example of a PRR?
What is the function of TLRs?
To promote adherence and send danger signals that induce phagocytosis.
What system is used to attract phagocytic cells to microbes?
What does complement achieve?
What are the 3 cells that are major players in innate immunity?
-NK cells
What are NK cells specialized for killing?
-Virally infected cells
-Tumor cells
How do NK cells interact with other cells?
By 2-signal interactions
What are the 2 receptor interations that NK cells use to engage with viral or tumor cells?
-Cell surface recognition receptors
-MHC1/KIR interaction
What is a KIR?
Killer inhibitory receptor
What happens when the KIR binds a cell with class I MHC?
The killer cell can't kill it because it is inhibited.
What happens when an NK cell's KIR does NOT bind an MHC I?
The NK cell can kill that cell that it is seeing because it lacks the inhibitory signal.
What is the other method of killing that NK cells utilize?
What are the 3 components of adaptive immunity?
What is the special feature that sets adaptive immunity apart?
What is an antigen?
A molecule that stimulates an immune response
What is an epitope?
The smallest part of an antigen that can evoke an immune response.
What are the sentinels of the immune system?
Dendritic cells
What are dendritic cells in the skin called?
Langerhan's cells
What does binding of antigen to immature dendritic cells cause?
Upregulation of Class II MHC
What happens after dendritic cell binding of antigen and upregulation of MHC II?
The complex migrates to the nearest lymph node to present the Ag/MHCII to Tcells.
What are the 2 components of adaptive immunity that are activated by antigen presentation in lymph nodes?
-Humoral immunity
-Cellular immunity
Humoral immunity functions against:
Extracellular microbes
Cellular immunity functions against:
Intracellular microbes
How do antibodies kill pathogens?
By marking them for destruction by the innate immune system.
What does the Bcell receptor complex consist of?
-Membrane bound Ig
-Signal transduction molecules
What are the 3 signal trnasduction molecules on the BCR complex?
How is BCR diversity generated?
By genetic recombinations.
How is TCR diversity generated?
By genetic rearrangements also
What are the 3 signal transduction molecules in the TCR complex?
What cytokines promote leukocyte recruitment and acute inflammatory responses?
IL1 and TNF
What cytokine activates Tcells by binding to autologous receptors?
What cytokine activates eosinophils?
What cytokine activates macrophages?
What cells are susceptible to EBV infection?
What receptor is used by EBV to infect Bcells? What is the normal function of this receptor?
CD21 - the complement receptor (signal transduction molecule?)
What does the Bcell do once infected with EBV?
Presents chopped up peptides on Class II MHC to Thelper cells.
What is the Thelper response to antigen presentation by Bcells?
Secretion of cytokines which stimulate CTL proliferation to attack the virally infected bcells.
What is the characteristic Type I HSN reaction?
What is the cause of allergy?
Overactivation of Th2 cells and IgE antibody production
What are genetically determined high levels of IgE called?
What are the steps in Type I HSN?
-Allergen presented by DCs
-TH2 response secretes IL4,5,10
-IgE is secreted and coats mast cells
-Subsequent exposure causes mast cell degranulation
What are the 4 physiologic responses to mast cell release of primary and secondary mediators?
1. Smooth muscle spasm
2. Blood vessel dilation
3. Leukocyte infiltration
4. Mucus secretion
What are the 2 classic examples of Type I HSN?
1. Bronchial asthma
2. Systemic anaphylaxis
What is the cause of mucus secretion in bronchial asthma?
The late phase reaction caused by infiltrating neutrophils and eosinophils.
What are the 2 main treatments for bronchial asthma? What is each prescribed for?
1. Corticosteroids - to reduce inflammation
2. PDE inhibitors - to relax the bronchial smooth muscle
What is the major initiating event of an acute allergic reaction?
Mast cell degranulation
What are the 2 major effects of Histamine?
-Smooth muscle contraction
-Vascular dilation
What effect do proteases and prostaglandins and leukotrienes have?
Protease: tissue damage
Prostaglandin: vascular dilation
Leukotrienes: smooth muscle contraction
What is responsible for the late phase reaction of leukocyte recruitment?
What are the primary mediators in mast cell granules?
-Chemotactic factors
What are the secondary mediators in mast cells?
What are the 2 products of arachidonic acid metabolism?
What is the source of arachidonic acid?
Membrane phospholipid cleavage by Phospholipase A2
What additional 2ndary mediator is released from phospholipid metabolism by PLA2?
Platelet Activating Factor (PAF)
What is the rapidly developing systemic allergic reaction that can lead to shock and even death?
Systemic Anaphylaxis
What are common causes of systemic anaphylaxis?
Foods, drugs, insect venom
What are 2 clinical settings in which anaphylaxis could occur?
-Allergy shots
Who discovered anaphylaxis and how?
Richet and Portier by studying portugese man of war in dogs.
What are the 2 main clinical manifestations of anaphylaxis?
1. Hypotension via vasodilation
2. Airway obstruction via laryngeal edema
What is used to treat anaphylaxis?
What is Type II hsn mediated by?
Antibodies against normal or altered cell surface antigens.
What are the 3 mechanisms by which antibody causes Type II hsn?
1. C' activation / opsonization
2. ADCC - KILLS the cell
3. Ab mediated cell DYSFUNCTION
What is a Type II HSN disease in which Ab mediates cell dysfunction by STIMULATING it?
Graves disease
What is the antibody directed against in grave's disease?
The TSH receptor on thyroid epithelial cells
What is a Type II HSN disease in which Ab mediates cell dysfunction by INHIBITING it?
Myasthenia gravis
What is the antibody directed against in Myasthenia gravis?
The ACh receptor
So what is impaired in Myasthenia gravis?
Neuromuscular transmission
List 8 examples of Type II HSN disorders:
1. Grave's disease
2. Myasthenia gravis
3. Goodpasture's
4. Bullous pemphigoid
5. Pernicious anemia
6. Vasculitides
7. Thrombotic phenomena
8. Acute rheumatic fever
What is the Ab specificity in Goodpastures?
Type 4 collagen
What are the clinical features of goodpastures?
-Lung hemorrhage
What is the Ab specificity in Bullous pemphigoid?
Epidermal basement membrane proteins
What are the clinical features of Bullous pemphigoid?
Skin vesicles
What is the Ab specificity in Pernicious anemia?
Intrinsic factor (from parietal cells in the gut)
What are the clinical features of pernicious anemia?
Megaloblastic anemia
What is the Ab specificity in Vasculitides?
Neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies
What is the Ab specificity in Thrombotic phenomena?
Antiphospholipid antibodies
What is the Ab specificity in Acute rheumatic fever?
Streptococcal antibody that crossreacts with the heart
What is the clinical feature of acute rheumatic fever?
What is a predominant site of autoantibody deposition in Goodpasture's syndrome?
The glomerulus