Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/50

Click to flip

50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is PAF?
Platelet activating factor
What is PAF derived from?
Ag-stimulated IgE coated basophils
What does PAF cause?
-Platelet aggregation
-Vasoconstriction
-Bronchoconstriction
What does PAF at very low concentrations cause?
A paradoxical vasodilation and increased vascular permeability
What are cytokines TNF and IL-1 produced by mainly?
Macrophages
What do TNF and IL-1 do?
-Induce endothelial adhesion molecule synthesis (ICAM1/VCAM1)
-Induce chemical mediators
-Causes acute phase reaction
What does an acute phase reaction consist of?
Fever
Anorexia
Sleep
Shock
Neutrophilia
What stimulates macrophages to release IL-1 and TNF?
Physical injury
Immune complexes
Endotoxin
What are chemokines?
Chemoattractans for leukocytes
What are the 4 important groups of chemokines?
CXC chemokines
CC chemokines
C chemokines
CX,C chemokines
What does IL-8 attract and what is its source?
Source: macrophages
Attracts: Neutrophils
What are MCP-1, Eotaxin, MIP-1alpha, and RANTES attractants for?
All WBCs except PMNs
What is C chemokine specific for?
Lymphocytes
What is the CX,C chemokine?
Fractalkine
What is NO produced by?
-Endothelial cells
-Macrophages
What does NO from endothelial cells do?
Relaxes smooth muscle for vasodilation
How is NO synthesized?
From L-arginine via NO synthase
What is the function of endothelial derived NO?
A compensatory mechanism to reduce the inflammatory response
What is the function of macrophage derived NO?
To kill bacteria and engulfed organisms.
What are the lysosomal constituents of leukocytes?
Destructive enzymes
What neuropeptide is an inflammatory mediator?
Substance P
What does Substance P do?
Causes increased permeability of the microvasculature
What are 3 outcomes of acute inflammation?
1. Resolution
2. Progression to chronic inflammation
3. Healing by CT replacement and fibrosis
What are the 4 morphologic patterns of acute inflammation?
1. Serous
2. Fibrinous
3. Suppurative/purulent
4. Ulcers
What is a serous inflammatory pattern?
Outpouring of transudate - thin fluid, effusion
What is the common manifestation of a serous inflammatory response?
Blister
What is the cause of fibrinous inflammation?
More severe injuries allowing fibrinogen and large proteins to escape the vasculature
How does fibrinous inflammation compare to serous?
It has an eosinophilic meshwork due to the increased fibrin in ECM.
In what body sites is fibrous inflammation typically seen?
Body cavity linings like the pericardium or pleural lining.
What does Purulent or suppurative inflammation consist of?
An exudate consisting of neutrophils, necrotic cells and edema
What is purulent inflammation commonly caused by?
Pyogenic bacteria (staph)
What is the common manifestation of purulent inflammation?
Abscesses
What is the difference between acute and chronic inflammation?
Acute subsides and the tissue returns to normal

Chronic subsists and consists of simultaneous active inflammation, tissue destruction, and repair.
What are causes of chronic inflammation?
-Persistent infections
-Prolonged exposure to toxic agents
-Autoimmunity
What are the morphologic features of chronic inflammation?
-Mononuclear cell infiltration
-Tissue destruction
-Angiogenesis and fibrosis
What are the predominant cell type in chronic inflammation?
MACROPHAGES
What is the precursor of macrophages?
Monocytes
What happens to macrophages at the site of chronic inflammation?
Activation
What are the actions of activated macrophage products?
-Elimination of the offender
-Initiation of fibrosis
-Tissue destruction
What is the hallmark of Granulomatous inflammation?
Focal accumulation of epithelial-like cells
What is the prototypical granulomatous inflammation?
TB
What type of cell injury is seen in TB?
Caseous necrosis
What forms in granulomatous inflammation?
Giant cells
What type of giant cells?
Langerhans
What is the difference between Langerhans and Foreign-body type giant cells?
Langerhans: nuclei are peripheral
Foreign body: nuclei are haphazardly arranged
What do granulomas form from?
Giant cells
What do the epitheloid cells that form the granulomas develop from?
Accumulated activated macrophages
What role do the lymphatics play in inflammation?
-Secondary line of defense
-Drains edema
What are the systemic effects of inflammation called?
Acute phase reactions
What is SIRS?
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome