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38 Cards in this Set

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What is the acronym for apoptosis features?
PREAN
What is PREAN?
-Plasma membrane intact
-Rapid phagocytosis
-Enzymes degrade nuclear/cytoplasmic proteins
-Activation of intracellular program
-No surrounding inflammation
What are 2 mechanisms of apoptosis?
-Extrinsic
-Intrinsic
What is the extrinsic mechanism of apoptosis?
Ligands interact at death receptors on the cell surface to trigger apoptosis.
What is the Intrinsic mechanism of apoptosis?
Increased mitochondrial permeability
How does increased mitochondrial permeability lead to apoptosis?
It decreases bcl-2 which is an antiapoptotic oncogene
What does a decrease of bcl-2 lead to?
The release of cytochrome c
What does cytochrome c lead to?
Caspase activation
What does caspase activity do?
Disrupts the cytoskeleton and causes nuclear breakdown
What is the result of cytoskeleton disruption and nuclear breakdown?
The cell expresses marker molecules that signal for speedy phagocytosis.
How does radiation or chemotherapy induced DNA damage result in apoptosis?
It causes p53 accumulations so it arrests the cell cycle to allow for DNA repair.
What happens if DNA does not repair?
p53 triggers apoptosis.
What is p53?
A tumor suppressor gene
What special immune process can cause apoptosis?
Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte mediated
What to Tc cells secrete and how does it trigger apoptosis?
They secrete perforins and Granzyme B triggers the apoptosis.
What are the 4 subcellular responses to cell injury?
1. Lysosomal catabolism
2. Induction of smooth ER
3. Mitochondrial alterations
4. Cytoskeletal abnormalities
What 2 types of lysosomal catabolism follow cell injury?
-Autophagy (of damaged stuff)
-Heterophagy (of engulfed bugs)
What would smooth ER be induced to hypertrophy in cell injury?
Due to increased exposure to certain chemicals
What is the extrinsic mechanism of apoptosis?
Ligands interact at death receptors on the cell surface to trigger apoptosis.
What is the Intrinsic mechanism of apoptosis?
Increased mitochondrial permeability
How does increased mitochondrial permeability lead to apoptosis?
It decreases bcl-2 which is an antiapoptotic oncogene
What does a decrease of bcl-2 lead to?
The release of cytochrome c
What does cytochrome c lead to?
Caspase activation
What does caspase activity do?
Disrupts the cytoskeleton and causes nuclear breakdown
What is the result of cytoskeleton disruption and nuclear breakdown?
The cell expresses marker molecules that signal for speedy phagocytosis.
How does radiation or chemotherapy induced DNA damage result in apoptosis?
It causes p53 accumulations so it arrests the cell cycle to allow for DNA repair.
What happens if DNA does not repair?
p53 triggers apoptosis.
What is p53?
A tumor suppressor gene
What special immune process can cause apoptosis?
Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte mediated
What to Tc cells secrete and how does it trigger apoptosis?
They secrete perforins and Granzyme B triggers the apoptosis.
What are the 4 subcellular responses to cell injury?
1. Lysosomal catabolism
2. Induction of smooth ER
3. Mitochondrial alterations
4. Cytoskeletal abnormalities
What 2 types of lysosomal catabolism follow cell injury?
-Autophagy (of damaged stuff)
-Heterophagy (of engulfed bugs)
What would smooth ER be induced to hypertrophy in cell injury?
Due to increased exposure to certain chemicals
What is the classic example of smooth ER induction?
Barbiturate tolerance
What are 2 types of cytoskeletal abnormalities that can result from cell injury?
-Cell locomotion and function defects
-Intracellular fibrillar accumulations
What do cytoseletal abnormalities affect, specifically?
Thin filaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments.
What is a disease in which microtubules are injured?
Male sterility - inmotile cilia syndrome
What is a disease in which intermediate filaments are injured?
Alzheimers