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63 Cards in this Set

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What are the most common cancers in children?
Leukemia>CNS neoplasms>sarcoma>>carcinoma
What are the most common cancers in adults?
Carcinoma>leukemia/lymphoma>sarcoma
Alcohol increases the risk of what types of cancers?
Oropharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver
Smoking increases the risk of what types of cancers?
Lung/bronchus, mouth, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, pancreas, urinary bladder
What AD syndrome has a 100% incidence of colon cancer by age 50?
Familial adenomatous polyposis
What AD syndrome is due to a mutation in a mismatch repair gene rather than a tumor suppressor gene?
Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer syndrome
AR cancer syndromes are usually due to a defect in what?
DNA repair enzymes.
Pap smear is an example of what type of lab diagnosis?
Exfoliative cytology procurement
Vimentin is typically found in what type of tissue?
Mesenchymal
Keratin is typically found in what type of tissue?
Epithelial
Desmin is typically found in what type of tissue?
Muscular
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is typically found in what type of tissue?
Glial
Neurofilaments is typically found in what type of tissue?
Neurons
What are examples of immunohistochemical stains?
Immunoperoxidase stains

Brown stain
Benign neoplasms a low or high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio?
Low-they are not rapidly growing so the nucleus is not as big relative to malignant neoplasm
A neoplasm comprises of what components?
Parenchyma and stroma
What is the parenchyma?
Actual cell gone wrong-clonal proliferation of cell
What is the stroma?
Blood supply and framework of the tumor-consists of connective tissue and blood vessels, macrophages and lymphocytes

Not clonal
What is an example of a soft neoplasm?
Burkitt's lymphoma
What is a dense, collagenous stroma called?
Desmoplasia
What is a scirrhous neoplasm?
Very hard neoplasm due to very dense stroma.

eg. Breast cancer
What is an example of a mixed tumor?
Pleomorphic adenoma of salivary gland
What is a definite feature of benignity?
Inability to metastasize (spread to other sites)
What is the difference between choristoma and hamartoma?
Choristoma is normal tissue but is not supposed to be where it is. (ie. pancreas tissue in stomach)

Hamartoma is a tissue that is found in normal place, but has abnormal architecture (ie. nodule in lung with cartilage, bronchi and vessels)
Most cancers occur in people over what age?
55
Cancer is the main cause of death in women and men, at what ages?
Women: 40-79

Men: 60-79
AD cancers usually involve a mutation in what type of gene?
Tumor suppressor gene
What are examples of AR cancer syndromes?
Xeroderma pigmentosum

Bloom syndrome

Ataxia-telangiectasia

HNPCC-most common predisposition to cancer
Cancers that show familial clustering include:
Breast

Ovary

Colon

Brain

Skin
Diseases or conditions that are associated with an increased risk of cancer include:
Crohn disease

Ulcerative colitis

Helicobacter pylori gastritis

Viral hepatitis

Chronic pancreatitis
What are some examples of precancerous conditions?
Chronic atrophic gastritis of pernicious anemia

Actinic keratosis/solar keratosis

Chronic ulcerative colitis

Leukoplakia (oral, vulvar, penile)
What are some benign neoplasms that can undergo malignant transformation?
Leiomyoma

Pleomorphic adenoma of salivary gland

Villous adenoma (50%)
What are the features of familial cancers?
Early age of onset

Multiple or bilateral tumors

Tumors in 2 or more close relatives
What does grading of neoplasm refer to?
Degree of differentiation

Low grade=well differentiated

High grade=poorly differentiated
What does stage of neoplasm refer to?
Extent of disease
What does staging assess?
Size of lesion

Extent of regional lymph node metastasis

Extent of distant metastasis
In the TNM (tumor, node metastasis) system, which is the single most important prognostic factor?
Metastasis
Sarcomas will have what tissue markers?
Vimentin

Desmin (if muscular)
Carcinoma will have what tissue markers?
Keratin
Lymphoma will have what tissue markers?
Vimentin

LCA (CD45) (leukocyte common antigen)
Melanoma will have what tissue markers?
Vimentin

HMB-45 (human melanoma black)
Astrocytoma will have what tissue markers?
Vimentin

GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein)
APC mutation
Familial adenomatous polyposis
P53 mutation is associated with what condition?
Li Fraumeni syndrome
Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis: underlying neoplasm
Advanced cancers, especially mucinous CA
What are some critical location effects of neoplasia?
Pituitary-destruction can cause serious endocrinopathy

Endocrine-neoplasm can cause insufficiency of gland

Gut-obstruction
Mediators involved in cancer cachexia.
TNF

IL-1

IFN-gamma

Leukemia inhibitory factor

Proteolysis-inducing factor

Lipid-mobilizing factor
What are the steps to process cassettes for histologic analysis?
1. Fixation with 10% formalin

2. Dehydration with alcohol

3. Embedding in paraffin using xylene
A frozen section can provide a preliminary diagnosis within how many minutes?
20
How long does processing for cytological analysis take compared to histological analysis?
Histological analysis-usually overnight

Cytological analysis-within a few hours
CD30 positive indicates what type of tumor?
Embryonal CA (germ cell tumor)
CD30 negative indicates what type of tumor?
Yolk sac CA (testicular tumor in kids)
What is the major cause of relapse in chemotherapy?
Minimal residual disease
What mutation can be detected to identify colon cancer relapse?
K-RAS
What types of cancer can be diagnosed used flow cytometry?
Lymphoma and leukemia

*Sarcomas and carcinomas, the cells stick together
Acanthosis nigricans is only seen in the setting of cancer. True or false
False-can be seen in genetic disorder present in childhood
What is acanthosis nigricans?
Velvety, hyperpigmentation/verrucous hyperkeratosis on skin esp. axilla or groin
What is hypertrophic osteoarthropathy?
Periosteal new bone formation at distal ends of long bones, metatarsals, metacarpals, proximal phalanges

Arthritis of adjacent joint

Clubbing of digits
In what settings would you see clubbing of digits?
Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy

Liver disease

Lung disease (eg. CF)

Cyanotic congenital heart disease

UC
What is seen in nephrotic syndrome?
Proteinuria

Hypoalbuminemia

Generalized edema

Hyperlipidemia

Lipiduria
What is the clinical presentation of immune complex glomerulonephritis?
Proteinuria
Radiation damage can resemble what type of cancer?
Carcinoma
Verrucous carcinoma can resemble what cancer?
Benign squamous cell epithelial lesion