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42 Cards in this Set

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What is meant by Ionizing radiation?
Electromagnetic Ray - (Xrays & gamma-rays
Particulate Radiations - alpha & beta particles, protons & neutrons
How do viruses cause carcinogenesis?
Viruses transformed into host cell & integrated into cell cycle
Name 3 viruses associated with cancer & which type of cancer
HPV - cervical cancer
Eptein-Barr - Burkitt's lymphoma, B-cell lymphomas
Hep B,C & D - Liver cancer
Human T-cell Leukemia Virus Type I
Which bacteria is associated with carcinogenesis?
Helicobactor Pylori - gastric lymphoma
Immune surveillance?
recognition & destruction of non-self tumor cells
TSAs?
Tumor-specific antigens
Present only on turmor cells and not on any normal cells
EX: Prostate screening
TAAs?
Tumor-associated antigens
Present on tumor cells and ALSO on some normal cells. Harder to recognize & treat
Antitumor Effector Mechanisms?
Methods of immune system to kill off tumors
Cytotoxic T
NK
Macrophages
Humoral mechanisms
What are mechanisms for the tumor to escape immunosurveillance?
Selection outgrouth of antigen negative variants
Loss/reduced exp of HLA atigens
Lack of costimulation
Immuosuppression
Apoptosis of cytotoxic Ts
What is Cachexia?
Wasting syndrome that can associated with neoplasm (or HIV or several other things)
What is meant by "paraneoplastic syndromes?"
A group of signs/symptoms caused by factors produced by tumors.
Examples: Endocrinopathies, nerve/muscle syndromes, etc
How are tumors graded?
Based on the degree of differentiation of tumor cells & number of mitoses within tumor
I-IV with increasing anaplasia
What's an HLA?
Human MHC Antigen - markers for "self" on human cells. Used in Tissue typing.
Description of Grade I Neoplasm
Well-differentiated, tumor tissue closely resemebles tissue of origin
Few mitoses, little variation in size/shape of tumor cells
Description of Grade II Neoplasm
Moderately differentiated, doesn't resemble tissue of origin as well.
Increased mitoses & increased variation in size/shape of tumor cells
Description of Grade III & IV
Poorly differentiated, doesn't resemble tissue of origin
Many mitoses
Large variation in size/shape of tumor cells
How are tumors "staged"?
Based on size of primary tumor & it's extent of spread into regional lymph nodes & presence/absence of blood-borne metastases
What are the neoplastic stages?
TX, T0, Tis
T1, T2, T3, T4
Describe the TX tumor stage
Primary tumor can't be assessed - or tumor proven by presence of malignant cells in sputum/bronchial washings but can't be visualized by imaging/bronchoscopy
T0 - what does this tumor stage mean?
No evidence of primary tumor
Tis - what does this tumor stage mean?
Carcinoma in situ
What is the T staging system?
Part of Cancer staging system dealing with the primary *T* - size and how far it has invaded. Classified Tx (can't assess), T0 (No tumor) and T1-T4. Specifics on T staging are different for each type/location of primary tumor
Grading vs. Staging
Grading describes the how differentiated the tumor is.
Staging describes the primary tumor and how far it has spread
What is the N staging system?
Part of the Cancer stage system dealing with lymph Nodes. NX - can't be assessed, N0 - no node metastasis. Goes thru N3 - Metasisis in nodes on both sides
What is the M staging system?
Part of Cancer staging system dealing with Metasisis
MX - can't be assessed
M0 - no distant metastasis
M1 - distant metatasis
NOT FINISHED
Start at Slide 199, 7:35
aj;
How are cancers diagnosed cytologically?
Exfoliated cells (Sputum, urine, cdf, body cavity fluids)
Brushings/scrapings of epithelium
FNA - Fine needle aspiration
Hare are cancers diagnosed histologically?
Frozen section method
Paraffin section method
Electron microscopy
Immunoperoxidase techniques (Labeled Abs used to id marker Ags in tumors)
Is cytological or histological diagnose definitive?
Histologic
What information is provided by pathological diagnosis?
Type
Biological behavior
Histologic grade
Degree of invasion/spread
Pathologic stage
How are cancers diagnosed via serum?
Detects secreted cancer products & Ag released by dead cancer cells
What is CEA?
Carcinoembryonic antigen - a substance tested for in serum for diagnoses or follow-up of:

GI, breast & lung cancer.
(Can be elevelate in some non-cancerous states)
What is AFP?
a-Fetoprotein found in serum

In Hepatoma, or yolk sac tumors
What is HCG?
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin - greatl elevated in Choriocarcinom. Rarely elevated in other neoplasms
What is prostatic acid phosphatase & prostate-specific epithelian antigen?
2 different molecules that are elevated in metastatic prostate cancer
What is monoclonal immunoglobulin?
Ig detected in serum with Myelomas and some B cell lymphomas
Name4 Hormone tumor markers and assoc cancer (if any)
HCG - trophoblastic & non-seminomatous testicular
Calcitonis - Medullary carc of thyroid
Catecholamines - Pheochromcytoma
Ectopic hormones - Paraneoplastic syndromes
Naem 3 Oncofetal Antigen tumor markers and assoc cancer (if any)
a-fetoprotein - lever cell, non seminomatous germ cell tumor of testis

Carcinoembryonic antigen - Colon, pancrease, lung, stomach & heart
Name 2 isoenzyme tumor markers and assoc cancer (if any)
Prostatic acid phosphatase - prostate

Neuron-specific enolase - Small cell cancer of lung, neuroblastoma
Name specific protein tumor markers and assoc cancer (if any)
IGs - multiple myeloma & other gammopathies

Prostate-specific & Pros-spec membrane Ags - Prostate

CA-125 - Ovaria
CA-19-9 - Colon & pancreatic
CA-15-3 - Breast
What are radiologic methods of cancer diagnosis?
Xray
CT
MRI
PET
& "Many others"
What are some of the therapies used for cancer?
Surgery
Radiation
Chemotherapy
Immunotherapy
Radioimmunotherapy
Bone Marrow Transplat