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47 Cards in this Set

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Shock
inability of the body to adequately perfuse the whole body
anasarca
total body generalized edema
effusions
build up of fluid in a cavity
ex. pleural effusion (thorax)
pericardial effusion
hydrocephalus
hyperemia
increased blood flow to an organ
blushing, erection
arterial
congestion
decreased blood flow from an organ
venous
Nutmeg liver
blood pools in the liver as the heart dies
an example of congestion
hematoma
enough blood in the tissue to create a palpable mass
Purpura
hemorrhage in the tissues 3-10 mm
Ecchymoses
hemorrhage in the tissues > 10 mm
i.e. a bruise
Petechiae
hemorrhage in the tissues < 3 mm
hemoptysis
bleeding from the trachea
coughing up blood
hematemesis
vomiting blood
hematochezia
bright red blood out the rectum
melena
black, tarry, partially-digested blood out of the rectum
How much blood can you lose at once?
10% - blood donation
20% - a little sick
40% - hypovolemic shock
Virchow's Triad
1. injured endothelium
2. alterations in normal blood flow (turbulence)
3. Hypercoagulable blood
Lines of Zahn
thrombi that formed before death will have these! That is how you different ante- vs. post-mortem thrombi
Mural thrombi
walls of the cardiac chambers and aorta.
Vegetations
thrombi that occur on cardiac valves (usually loaded with bacteria)
Milk leg
venous thrombosis in later preganancy or after delivery
Trousseau's sign
widespread venous thrombosis
*in patients with cancer of the pancreas*
Embolus
any solid, liquid, or gaseous thing (other than blood) that travels along the bloodstream and will impact and lodge somewhere
Paradoxical embolus
an embolus that comes from the systemic veins that passes through a cardiac shunt (birth defect) to occlude a systemic artery
Amniotic fluid emboli
Amniotic fluid enters systemic circulation, can lead to DIC

pathologist find squamous cells
if you think your patient has an acute air embolus
roll him onto left side so that the gas will pool safely in his right atrium
Bone marrow emboli
routine autopsy finding following vigorous CPR (fractured ribs)
Cryoglobulins
Ab aggregate causing infarction
White infarcts
Arterial insufficiency
Not reperfused
Single blood supply
Ex: kidney, heart, speen, brain
Red infarcts
Venous insufficiency
Reperfused
Dual Blood supply
Ex. Brain, lung, artery, liver, testicle
Compensated shock
your body is dealing with it
prioritize organs
cold, pale, clamy
Can come out of it on their own
Progressive shock
organ failure
irreversible on its own, need clinical intervention
lactic acidosis
ARDS
Watershed infarcts
necrosis at the places farthest from the arterial supply
Werdnig-hoffman disease
floppy baby syndrome
kugelberg-welander
forme fruste of werdnig-hoffman
Just not trying in gym class
think:
muscular dytstrophies
McArdle's
Duchenne's
lack of dystrophin
pseudohypertrophy of the calves
Gower's sign
Becker's muscular dystrophy
dystrophin is present, just less effective
Myotonic dystrophy
"Steinart's disease"
Carp mouth
Ring fibers
Central nuclei
Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy
winged scapuli
Poor muscle tone
Pompe's disease
glycogen storage problem in cardiac
Floppy babies with big hearts
McArdle's disease
glycogen storage problem in the muscle
Mitochondrial myopathies
parking lot crystals
ragged red fibers
myositis ossificans
endochondral bone formation occurs within the muscular CT
common primary bone cancers
osteosarcoma, ewing's sarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and malignant giant cell tumor
Bone tumors arising from diaphysis
enchondromas, some chondrosarcomas, Ewing's
Bone tumors arising from epiphysis
chondroblastomas, giant cell tumors
Punched out lesions of the bone is indicative of
Plasma cell myeloma