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10 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Chemical Agents:
Chemicals of abuse (alcohol, etc.)
Industrial and agricultural chemicals
Therapeutic drugs
Mechanisms of exposure:
-Voluntary abuse
-Suicide/homicide via poisoning
-Accidental ingestion
-Occupational exposure
-Incidental (unrecognized) exposure (eg. toxic chems in food, water, etc)
-Prescription drugs
Alcohol
Chronic alcoholism: damages almost every organ in body
Nervous system deficits
Liver cirrhosis; pancreatitis; gastritis
Carcinoma or oropharynx, larynx, esophagus
folic acid/B12
empty calories
decrease lifespan

Note: if alcoholics develop liver cirrhosis; should advise not to stop drinking, but reduce the amount
Smoking
Single most vital environmental cause of death in the world

Malignancies:
- Mouth, larynx, esophagus, lungs
- Peptic ulcers: smoke mixes with sputum that drops down into stomach and shares the carcinogens with the stomach leads to increased excretion of acid
-Also of carcinoma bladder, kidneys, etc
-Common carcinoma: small cell carcinoma

- Nicotine: one of most addictive agents (more addictive than heroin)

Smokers that are also exposed to asbestos more often suffer from carcinomas, not mesotheliomas (KNOW THIS)
Marijuana
- most popular drug in States

- No definitive evidence that prolonged use has permanent effects on struc and function of the brain or any other organ of the body

- Heavy use associated with impaired fetal growth and development --caused by smoke (anoxia), not the chem. agents of the MJ
Heroin
-Most common illicit opioid used

-Physical effects from pharm effect; hypersensitivity; microbiological contaminants; shared hypodermic needles

Death usually associated with overdose: resp depression, arrhythmias/CARDIAC ARREST, pulmonary edema

Infections from injections: micro-abscesses cause needle tracks

Vegetations on heart valve: regurgitations
Granulomas around the foreign material injected with the drug
Cocaine
Powerful CNS stimulant Short acting: rapidly metabolized into metabolite: BENZOYL-ECOGNINE

Casey Jones Rxn: when take more than one line of cocaine
- epinephrine blocking leads to vasoconstriction then coma, brain paralysis; cardiac arrest

Cardiac problems the major issue
Lead
Lead paint; radiators, throughout the house

Associated with lowered learning ability

Stippling of RBCs: see line across the gums

Collects in the cerebellum (thus decreases learning) and renal tubule (nuclear inclusion in cells: decrease ability to transport RBCs leads to anemia; renal disease)
Insecticides & Herbicides: Paraquat
crop killer (used to fight MJ crops): people end up smoking with their MJ leads to lung damage
Asbestos
Diff forms:

a) Serpentine : b/c of shape, doesn’t make it down into lung

b) Amphiboles: short; evade mucocilliary defense- go to far reaches of the lung: malignancies (mesotheliomas)

Detected with iron stains in lung epithelium: to recognize fruginous bodies

Smokers that are also exposed to asbestos more often suffer from carcinomas, not mesotheliomas (KNOW THIS)