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122 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
pathogen
any disease producing microorganism
epidemiology
the frequency and distribution of a disease
etiology
the study of the cause of disease
pathogenesis
the study of the development of a disease
condyloma acuminatum
common cervical lesion caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV)
e. coli
most common cause of pyelonephritis and urinary tract infections
hernia
loops of small bowel passing through an unintended opening
stenosis
an incomplete stricture that narrows but does not occlude the lumen
volvulus
a segment of the bowel that twists on its mesentery
atresia
the absence of a lumen in a section of the gut tube
diverticulum
an acquired herniation of the mucosa and submucosa through the muscular layer of the gut
intussusception
telescoping of the bowel into itself
reflux
regurgitation of gastric contents
cirrhosis
progressive fibrosis that ultimately destroys the liver
achalasia
the absence of peristalsis within the esophagus
emphysema
enlargement of air spaces distal to terminal bronchioles with destruction of lung parenchyma
rheumatoid arthritis
a slow, chronic inflammatory degeneration of articular cartilage
asthma
episodic reversible bronchospasm accompanied by bronchial inflammation
croup
an infection of the larynx
vascular low back pain
low back pain triggered by an aneurysm
pneumonia
a respiratory disease that occurs most often as a complication of another illness
pneumothorax
presence of air in the pleural cavity
chronic bronchitis
a chronic productive cough with no discernible cause for more than 3 months for 2 consecutive years
osteoporosis
pathology where the bones of the body have a reduction in bone mass while keeping the normal ratio of mineral to matrix
atelectasis
a collapsed lung or bronchial tube
lordosis
an exaggerated lumbar curve
raynaud disease
paroxysmal pallor or cyanosis of the hands and feet
hypertension
most often the result of an imbalance between cardiac output and total peripheral resistance
congestive heart failure
a disease resulting from the heart's inability to eject and adequate amount of blood
myasthenia gravis
an acquired autoimmune disease characterized by abnormal fatigability of skeletal muscle
leukemia
a disease of the blood marked by a proliferation of nonfunctional white blood cells
chondromalacia
a type of osteoarthritis that affects the patellar cartilage in young people
anemia
a disease that reduces the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood
atherosclerosis
a disease of blood vessels characterized by the narrowing and weakening of arteries
paget's disease
a pathology of bone formation characterized by a thickening and disorganization of bone architecture
varicose vein
an abnormally dilated and tortuous vein produced by increased intraluminal pressure
angina pectoris
a disorder characterized by intermittent chest pain
how bacteria multiplies
by binary fission
hemophilia
a bleeding disorder
granulocytopenia
a condition of the blood characterized by an abnormally low number of white blood cells
type I diabetes
the form of diabetes that results from the autoimmune destruction of the beta cells within the Islets of Langerhans
pathogenicity
the ability of the infectious agent to establish itself in a host and cause disease
cretinism
decreased secretion of thyroid hormone in children
agonists
drugs that enhance a specific cell function
cushing's syndrome
excess secretion of adrenocortical hormones
thyrotoxicosis
increased secretion of thyroid hormones in adults
obesity
when food derived energy chronically exceeds energy expenditure
grave's disease
disease marked by exopthalmus, the protrusion of the eyeballs
paraplegia
loss of sensory and motor function in the lower extremities
impetigo
common bacterial infection of the epidermis
cerebrovascular accident
an interruption in the delivery of oxygen to the brain
multiple sclerosis
the most common demyelinating disease of the CNS
scabies
a contagious disease caused by mites
meningioma
encapsulated neoplasm arising outside the brain substance and attaching to the dura
alzheimer's disease
the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, most often occurring after age 50 with increased incidence as age increases, unknown etiology
ultraviolet light
the most important carcinogenic agent in most cutaneous cancer
concussion
a transient loss of cerebral function that immediately follows as head injury
migraine
a headache that is sometimes preceded by sensory hallucinations
cellulitis
a rapidly spreading acute inflammation of subcutaneous tissue
parkinsonism
a disturbance of motor function with rigidity, gait disturbances, and a slowing of voluntary movements
scoliosis
a lateral curve of the vertebral column
pathologic
a fracture that is the result of a disease process that weakens the bone
oncogene
a gene that acts to convert normal cells to cancer cells
spina bifida
a defective closure of the neural tube
two hallmark characteristics of increased intracranial pressure
headache, vomiting
malignant neoplasm characteristics
rapid growth
poorly differentiated
metastasis
growth by invasion of surrounding tissues
cerebral palsy
a motor disorder acquired in utero, during the birth process, or soon after birth
antigen
any substance introduced into the body that triggers an immune response
seizure
a disorder characterized by abnormal electrical discharges in the brain
hydrocephalus
an accumulation of excess CSF in the ventricular system of the brain
autoimmune
a disease that develops as a result of the breakdown of self tolerance
subdural hematoma
a traumatic brain injury with a disruption of the bridging veins between the cortex and dural venous sinuses, most likely when cerebral atrophy is present
small pox
a disease caused by the variola virus
metastasis
a secondary tumor develops at a site distant and separate from the original tumor
cellular immunity
t cells kill infectious agents directly
virus
depends on their host for replication
incubation
the time between organism transmission to the development of symptoms in the host
dysplasia
the first irreversible step towards cancer, change in cell size, shape, or organization of cell components (abnormal)
fibrosis
when an injury cannot be repaired by regeneration
edema
an imbalance between hydrostatic pressure and oncotic pressure
hemostasis
a blood clot in a damaged vessel
angiogenesis
the growth of new vessels
antibody
a substance produced by plasma cells of the immune system to fight infectious agents
nonspecific resistance
the first line of defense against a wide range of threatening factors
prognosis
the expected outcome of a disease
complication
a disease concurrent with another disease
atrophy
a decrease in the size of a cell
metaplasia
a reversible change of one adult cell type for another, loss of differentiation (abnormal)
hyperplasia
an increase in the number of cells
endogenous pathogen
develops or originates within the body
exogenous pathogen
develops or originates outside of the body
idiopathic
unknown or spontaneous cause
iatrogenic
disease caused by treatment (doctor did it)
nosocomial infections
diseases acquired simply by being hospitalized
pathology
the study of the essential nature of the disease
clinical manifestations
the presentation of the disease
signs
physical observations and measures; objective data
symptoms
perceptions of the client; subjective data
functional significance
the impact of the disease on the individual
What is wrong with the statement "massage therapy is contraindicated"?
this statement needs to also take into consideration the needs and desires of the client, the actual pathology that is affecting them, and the possibility that another modality other than Swedish may be used
causes of cell injury
- hypoxia - lack of blood flow
- physical agents - sunlight
- infectious agents - bacteria and viruses
- immunologic reactions - own immune system attacks
- genetic derangements - abnormal gene
- nutritional imbalances - too much or not enough
- aging - things break down as life goes on
hypoxia
lack of oxygen
ischemia
lack of blood flow
the effects of the lack of oxygen on a cell
- lack of oxygen stops mitochondrial production of ATP
- without ATP, plasma membrane proteins malfunction causing a disruption of ion concentrations within the cell
- the accumulation of ions causes water to enter the cell by osmosis, upsetting the fluid balance
- organelles swell and malfunction
- ribosomes can't synthesize proteins, cell relies on alternative sources of energy
- acidic by products accumulate, causing damage to the nuclear DNA
- cell membrane breaks
- cell death
free radical cell injury
an unstable atom or molecule that steals an electron from a nearby molecule. this damages cells, causes oxidation in the body
hypertrophy
an increase in the size of cells, leads to increase in the size of organ
anaplasia
to form backwards
necrosis
progressive enzymatic digestion of a cell, acute cellular injury (not enough blood supplied to tissue, tissue dies from external factors) e.g. gangrene
apoptosis
programmed cellular death or deletion (cell self destruction when stimulated by appropriate trigger) e.g. when fetus fingers separate
inflammation
occurs as a reaction to an injurious agent

signs of inflammation:
heat - calor (increased blood flow)
redness - rubor (increased blood flow)
swelling - tumor (imbalance of flow)
pain - dolor
loss of function - functio laesa
What is the role of inflammation in the healing process?
inflammation triggers the healing process. it is the first step to let the body know that something is wrong so it can begin to heal
stasis
the slowing of blood flow in an area of inflammation
abscess
a local collection of pus buried in tissue
regeneration
a process that results in the restoration of lost or damaged tissues (complete resolution)
fibrosis (scar formation)
- removal of debris
- formation of granulation tissue
- scar remodeling
- maturation of a scar
- contraction and strengthening
propagation
increase in thrombus size
infarct
an area of ischemic necrosis caused by an occluded (blocked) vessel
ulcer
erosion or sloughing of necrotic tissue
fistula
an abnormal passage between organs or organ to surface
healing (scar)
occurs when the basic tissue structure has been altered. involves both regeneration and formation of scar (incomplete resolution)
angiogenesis
formation of new blood cells
inflammation stages
- vasoconstriction/vasodilation - increased blood flow causes - redness & warmth, increases vascular permeability
stasis - blood flow slows in area of inflammation
- margination - leukocytes stick to sides of vessel wall
- emigration - wbcs pass through vessel wall to interstitial space
- chemotaxis - cytokines secreted, wbcs find highest concentration of cytokines
- phagocytosis and destruction - the engulfing and usually the destruction of particulate matter by phagocytes (wbc)