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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
fxn of skin
sensory info
temp regulation
Ag recog
sexual attraction (apocrine)
differences in skin from different areas of the body are primarily due to:
relative diff in 4 basic layers and distribution of adnexal structures
what are the 4 basic skin layers? which is the most important pathologically?
papillary dermis (most imp)
reticular dermis
what are the 3 types of adnexal structures?
hair/pilar units (pilosebaceous units, arrector pili mm)
eccrine units (glands, ducts)
apocrine (exit with hair shaft)
where is the bulk of the adnexal structures located?
reticular dermis; extend to exit via ducts in epidermis
what is the basket weave like structure in the superficial epidermis?
horny layer=stratum corneum
dead cells lacking nuclei (clear); only keratin (extracellular?)
what are the layers of the epidermis?
stratum corneum, lucidum, granulosum, spinsosum, basale
whats going on in the stratum granulosum?
dense (red), compact keratin
making keratin hyalin granules that serve as the glue to hold the keratinocytes together
where do the keratinocytes proliferate and why do they appear more dense in the basal layers?
proliferate in the basal layers; one stays one moves us; as moves up, grows considerably, filling with keratin
which layer of the skin accumulates fluid in edema? where is it located?
papillary dermis (expansile)
relatively thin layer below the epidermis
what constitutes a squamous cell?
makes keratin
has intercellular jxns (desmosomes)
what do melanocytes look like histologically?
located in stratum basale
distinct nucleus with surrounding halo
no desmosomes
what are melanosomes and where are they located?
convert DOPA to melanin
passed from the melanocyte to the keratinocyte which carries it to the surface
charac of stratum basale
single keratinocyte layer (columnar, cuboidal); stem cells
hemidesmosomes attach to BM
desmosomes conn cells
also, melanocytes and merkel cells present
what and where are the dendritic cells present?
langerhans cells in the upper spinous layer (APC)
what are rete pegs?
epidermal invaginations into dermis; flatten with age
(anchor, taughtness)
what are dermal papillae?
dermal evaginations (papillary dermis) into the epidermis
what is the plexus in the papillary dermis that contributes to blushing?
superficial vascular plexus
what is a meissner's corpuscle? where are they located?
special nerve ending (touch receptor)
only in dermal papillae
most on hands and feet
how do the fibers of the papillary and reticular dermis differ?
papillary: fine, delicate, reticular, elastic fibers
reticular: course, thick, collagen bundles
what are charac of reticular dermis? where is it the thickest?
fxn: stable platform for epidermis
adnexal structures
thickest in areas of pressure (back, butt, scalp)
what is a pacinian corpuscle? where is it located?
encapsulated nerve ending (pressure receptor)
in deep dermis->hypodermis
what detects pain and temp in the skin? what controls blood flow and hair in the skin?
pain, temp: free nerve endings
SNS for blood, hair
characteristics of subQ tissue
loose and dense CT
adipocytes, fibroconnective tissue
connects reticular dermis with fascia of tissue below (mm, bone etc)
vascular (deep vascular plexus)
body temp regulation
fat storage, energy reserve
lost with age ->frail esp in hands, feet
where are some of the most rapidly dividing cells in the body?
hair bulb (chemo)
what empties into the infundibulum of the hair follicle?
sebaceous glands (lubricates)
eccrine gland: location, charac
(sweat gland)
in mid to low reticular dermis
apocrine glands: location, charac
deep dermis or at jxn of reticular dermis and subQ
axilla, perineum, scalp
pink b/c have high mitochondria
age-related changes in skin
flattening/loss of rete pegs at dermal/epidermal jxn
increased sheer (not decreased elasticity)
hair shaft decreases in diameter
decr number of hair follicles/decrease oil prod
change distribution of hair
loss subQ fat
what is Lentigo Senilis (Solar Lentigo)? where does it occur? why does it occur?
defn- benign, discrete hyperpigmented macule
seen on backs of hands (liver spots) and forehead (exposed)
occurs due to xs melanin in keratinocytes (NOT b/c of more melanocytes)
what is another word for "sun-induced" damage?
actinic damage