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104 Cards in this Set

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Adema
excess fluid in body tissue, skin to break open lead to infection.
Causes of Adema
infection, meds
Adema: Changes in Body
electrolite levels:
sodium,
congestive heart failure,
kidney failure,
liver disease,
lymph fluid,
increased pressure in capillaries due to obstruction in venus system,
anything to increase capillarie permibility,
low protein levels in blood, causes change in osmotic pressure to cause fluid to move of vascular system
Anasarca
generalized adema throughout body
Hydrocele
accumuation of fluid in scrotum, congenital or due to trauma.
hydrocephaly
accumuation of fluids (cerebral spinal fluid) in brain ventricles and subarracnoid space.
lymphodema
lymph build up in one area of body,
exp: woman with extatomy, one arm being swollen.
hydroparicardium
in paracardial sac, failure of heart to adiquately circulate, pressue of heart
Ascites
moving to abdominal cavity
hydrothorax
aka plural effusion chest cavity
pitting adema
skin is memory foam like
Hyperemia
increased blood flow to area of body.
Basodialation associated with inflamation.
Increased arteriol flow
decreased venus return
Either active or passive.
Active (hyperemia)
associated with atreo flow
Pathologic (hyperemia)
trauma, inflammation, infection
passive is always pathologic
passive (hyperemia)
staying in area, decreased venus return
physiologic (hyperemia)
normal bodily functional
active phyiologic (hyperemia)
excersize, digestion, test taking, sexual arrousal
Ischemia
opposite of hypermia, decreased blood flow to area...temporary decrease.
causes of ischemia
thrombus (clot)
hypotension- drop in blood pressure
arterio or athro sclerosis
external pressure
problem with innervation to vessels, veins to diolate.e
effects of ischemia
fainting
TIA
Angina
TIA
transient ischemic attack:
mini strokes,
if repeated- have actual stroke
depending on where will tell what area brain it will occur. Resolved in 12-24 hours.
Angina
Temp decreased blood slow to heart
chest pain heart area
able to be releaved by rest Affect depend on length of time and where it is.
Thrombosis
process of clot formation.
Clot itself refered as thrombus.
Clot attached to vessel wall.
Causes of thrombus:
trauma vessel wall,
no blood circulating,
cardiac disorder,
vascular disorder,
increase blood or platlets: gets thicker=bad circulation. Sepsis: organisms in blood.
Location of clot:
Venus: blood pooling in area. likely occur in legs, in deep veins.
ateriol: trauma or atrio or athro schlorosis.
Severe, no blood flow decreased oxygenization.
Clot can actually form within heart itself: infection, heart failure or attack.
Changes in thrombus:
want to dissolve, build phibrinolysin (enzyme),
medications given as well. Don't want break apart= fragments go all over.
Consequences of clot:
decrease blood flow
passive hyperemia: venus clot lead to development of wet gangrene,
artrioil: dry gangrene
enfortion
death of tissue.
Tumor cells spreading lead to
metastasis
Hemorrhage:
aka extravasation
blood move out vascular sys.
internal- refered as concealed: blood left vasc syst, still contained in body.
external- hemhorrage: blood leaves the body. occur from veins, or cappil's.
arteriol hemhorrage:bright red blood, spurting with heart beat.
venus: dark red, continuous flow.
cappilary: slow oozing of blood.
Most common cause: trauma. Other causes: vascular disease, hypertention (lead to rupture of vessels and blood diseases,hemophilia.)
per diapedesis:
break in vessel. intact but vessel more peremable but blood is leaking
Petechiae:
pin point hemhorrages in skin.
anywhere in skin:
vomiting see vessels in face.
Hematuria
blood in urine.
ecchymosis
Area of bleeding in the skin,
aka bruise.
Hematoma
swelling of blood.
Blood blister or large.
large: enzised.
Purpura
areas of bleeding into skin,
people who have blood diseases, hemophilia.

Senile purpura: older ppl ;skin is thinner.
Epistaxis
nose bleed,
result: high blood pressure
excess drinking,
snorted drugs.
Hemoptysis
coughing up blood from resp system.
Hematemsis
vomiting blood from digestive system.
Melena
blood in feces, from lower digestive system.
Hemopericardium
bleeding into pericardial sac.
pressure on heart; lead to heart failure.
Hemothorax
bleeding into chest cavity.
Hemoperitoneum
bleeding into abdominal cavity.
Menorrhagia
excessive bleeding; menstral period.
Mettorrhagia
excessive bleeding between menstral period.
SHOCK
blood no reach body tissue, decreased tissue perfussion.
Shock: cardiogenic
prob in heart,
not adiquately pumping blood
Heart attack
irregular heart beat
congestive heart failure
cardiac arrest.
Shock: hypovolemic
due to loss blood or bodily fluids. also due to:
trauma
severe burns
dehydration.
Shock: peripheral circulatory
prob in blood vessels.
Result from stenosis, norrowing of vessels.
also:
thrombis
embelles
anurism reptures
narcodic meds.
Shock: septic
result gram negative infection ; pseudomonas aeruginosa
ecoli
clebselia pneumonia.
Shock: anaphylactic-
extreme allerigic reaction,
symptoms plus smooth muscle
death occur w/in mins if respiratory system.
primary shock
comperable; fainting,
immediately after trauma or emotional.
Short duration and sypmtoms =mild.
secondary shock
totally collapse,
while to develop
lasts longer
more severe symptoms.
s & s:shock:
decreased blood flow
drop body temperature
heart beat faster w/weak rapid pulse
shallow rapid respiration. sweat a lot and little urinary output=increase thirst.
Pale, cold, clammy.
Still & zoned out or very aggiative
one extreme or another.
S & S septic shock
fever
shaking chills
nausia and vomit,
cramping and diarrhia,
risk:
ppl immunosepressed.
age extremes
preggo biatches
alterio schlorosis
best artery to use: cerrotid.
see a lot of it
athroserosis
plack, multi-injection.
Formtion of decubitus alcers:
ppl who are bedridden
surface, if not treated they can go down to bone.
Problems: odor; easily infection and leakage.
Skin slip
thin skin with less fat.
Adema
cause defussion and secordary dilusion.
bypass
large insistion in leg
tend to use staples
remove and suture.
Pace maker
no problem with embalming process,
cremation; have to remove.
Darken and swell and skin will break open.
Artharitis
position issues,
severe deformities and getting fluid both distribution and defussion.
getting fluid to body parts its easy to break
diabetese
ampution,
fresh; a lot issues.
Gangrene common especially in lower extremeties.
Medications
cause neutrolize fermaldahyde. Side effects: discoloration of skin, jaundice.
Damage to kidney, pneumonia present.
Bone structure: bones are weaker
Ferenzic pathology
qualifications:
elective and generally 2-4 yrs. voting age,
reside in jurisdiction
member of political party.
Resposibilies of coroner:
conduct inquest and summon a jury.
Order obstopsy.
final say: cause of death
issue death certificates and cremation permits.
Determine time body released to family.
Go to death scene: photos and evidense.
med examiners:
MD, appointed.
Term continue till die or retired or removed.
hold medical license in state serving.
certified by American board of pathology in ferenizic or anatomical pathology.
Same responsibilites are coroner also issue:
sapena and conduct public hearings.
office responsibilites:
prepare budget
Reason's to report:
still birth, infant death within 24 hours of delivery; allegany county up to 16 weeks.
result of criminal abortion.
during or after surgical procedure.
in hospital in result of accidental injury.
Wrong meds, or blood type.
body can't be identified.
in police custody or in prisson including any prisoner who dies in hospital.
related to employment.
Any home including home hospice care.
unsure if report or not.
death happens within 24 hours.
death from sex crime.
confined setting, like mental institution.
Abrasions
surperficial scrapes on skin.
Bruises
extravascular,
Laserations
splitting or tearing of skin,

suture or wax.
Avulsion
tearing away large piece of tissue,
happen on parts that stick out from body
Rule of 9's:.
determine how much of body is burned:
head -9%
anterior trunk 18%,
posterior trunk 18%,
extire arm 9% each,
anterior right leg 9 %,
posterior leg 9% on each. Genital's 1%
Asphixia
Struggle breathing against interference w/resp interference.
Ways Asphixia occurs
Suffocation
choking
gagging
Suffocation
obstruction of airways (smothering)
choking
objects lodged in airways.
gagging
Mucus or blood obstructing airway.
Traumatic axphixia
something making it impossible to breath.
EXP:flail chest from car accident.
Ways for traumatic axphixia to occur
Strangle
drowning
strangle
pressure by:
manually
ligature
Drowning
liquid or semi-liquid
occur w/o submerge.
What coroner looks for w/drown victim
airways into lungs.
Before: If in airways or into lungs.
After: water in lungs or throat but not lower.
temp body decomp w/water
cool water: slow
Warm water: speedy
RBC reaction to salt content in water
salt: RBC sink in themselves called crenation and hemoconcentration (thick blood)
Fresh water: RBC expand to rupture, thinned blood.
Post mordom
Cyanosis
intense rigormortis
hemhorrhages in face and tongue.
Hanging
weight of body, almost always suicide except sexual crap.
Hanging, above ligature
pertquia, Venus: blood can't drain from head, see dark blue to black discolor in face.
Blood drain, sianosis.
Infant death
child obtained separate exsistence.
Ways infant death occur
Comission: Something has been done.
Omission: something someone should have done (feed)
SIDS
Sudden infant death syndrome
Unexplainable death of otherwise healthy infant.
#1 cause death under 1 yr.
SIDS Risk Factors
Maturnal; Mum under age 20
No prenatal care
Smoking, booze, drugs
Little weight gain
Mum-anemia
Abnormal placenta like placenta separated too soon.
Infant risk facts
Recent resp infection
Sibbling w/SIDS
Higher for males
Birth-fall or winter
Early birth
SIDS risk factors; race
American Indians
Blacks
2-3 Xrate
lower socioecinomical rate.
Diagnosis or SIDS refered to as
Exclusion
Vulnerable infant
Immature brain stem
not much of myelin (resp breathing & heart rate)
Maltreat of child
neglect
abuse
battering
munchausen by proxy
Child neglect
not providing for child needs
Child abuse
physical or sexual
the older- the worse.
Child battering
repetative serious injures to child
Munchausen by proxy
inflict injury and illness usual on child for attention.
mother in 20's who studied health care.
boose in bottle
inject urine
Neonatalcide
Death w/in 1 month.
Characterist in Neonatalcide, mother's
Halosinations