Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
pt presents with periumbilical pain that soon migrates to the right lower quadrant with fever, nausea, vomiting, and elevated WBC
acute appendicitis
pt presents w/ diarrhea, SOB & valvular heart dz.
carcinoid tumor
liver is responsible for the ____________
detoxification of ammonia
pt with liver failure presents with impaired cognition and asterixis followed by decreasing levels of consciousness, coma, and death. What is this due to
“hepatic encephalopathy”-due to increasing blood ammonia levels
This type of liver failure is often drug-induced (e.g. acetaminophen toxicity, halothane, carbon tetrachloride, mushroom poisoning) or due to Hepatitis A&B.
Massive hepatic necrosis.
Liver failure caused by alcoholism or hepatitis B&C.
Chronic liver disease with cirrhosis.
liver failure due to Reye syndrome, tetracycline toxicity, acute fatty liver of pregnancy.
Hepatic dysfunction without overt necrosis
The liver responds to injury with 5 categories of cellular changes. what are they?
1) Degeneration and cellular accumulation
2) Necrosis
3) Inflammation (hepatitis)
4) Regeneration
5) Fibrosis
name the hepatic cellular injury.

Liver cells can swell & cytoplasmic fluid accumulates making them appear lighter. Triglyceride droplets accumulate resulting in steatosis (AKA fatty change).
Degeneration and cellular accumulation
pregnant woman taking valproic acid! has fatty change in liver manifested by small droplets that do not displace the nucleus
microvesicular fatty change
Obese man with diabites and hepatitis presents with fatty change of the liver manifested by larger droplets
macrovesicular fatty change
_________ can cause both micro and macrovesicular fatty change.
Alcoholic liver disease
type of liver necrosis where liver cells swell so much that they burst
lytic necrosis
In chronic passive congestion or certain drug reactions hepatocytes surrounding the central vein die as oxygenation is decreased in the stagnant pooling blood
centrolobular necrosis
when during inflammation necrotic hepatocytes span from one inflamed portal tract to other
bridging necrosis
Liver cells are engulfed by resting hepatic macrophages called Kupffer cells and so the identification of necrotic/apoptotic hepatocytes reflects ________
very recent damage (hours).
viral hepatitis in which lymphocytes accumulate in the portal triad and then spill over into the parenchyma and finally involve all of the liver tissue as fulminant hepatitis reflects this type of Cellular hepatic injury
Inflammation (hepatitis
large volumes of lost liver could potentially be replaced by hyperplasia of the residual hepatocytes if it were not for interference by fibrosis describes this type of hepatic cellular change
this type of hepatic change caused by chronic inflammation or direct toxic insult. It usually begins in the portal tracts and is irreversible.
With continued collagen deposition the fibrosis begins to divide the liver into nodules. At this point the process is called ______
The leading causes of cirrhosis
Alcoholic liver dz: 60%-70%
Viral hepatitis: 10%
Biliary diseases: 5%-10%
Primary hemochromatosis:5%
autopsy done on 65 y/o alcoholic shows diffuse nodularity of livers surface reflecting the interplay between nodular regeneration and scarring. There is a greenish tint of some nodules due to bile stasis. A hepatocellular carcinoma is present as a budding mass at the lower edge of the right lobe. Microscopic view shows nodules of varying sizes entrapped in blue-staining fibrous tissue. What is the dx
alcoholic cirrhosis
Tell whether the following liver condition is reversable or not:
-fatty change
-perivenular fibrosis
Tell whether the following liver condition is reversable or not:
-liver cell necrosis
-mallory bodies
-fatty change
Tell whether the following liver condition is reversable or not:
-hyperplastic nodules
this cell cell is the main culpret in cirrhosis
male pt preseents w/ Jaundice and bad smelling breath and evidence feminization. Labs show Hypoalbuminemia, Hyperammonemia, Hypoglycemia. What is the dx?
Hepatic dysfunction
pt presents with Hemorrhoids, Splenomegaly,Ascites, & Caput medusae. On biopsy the cut liver section, in which major blood vessels are visible, is notable for a variegated, mottled, red appearance (nutmeg liver).
Portal hypertension