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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Prothrombin Time
PT= coagulation screening test, dependent primarily on Factor VII
(Activated) partial thromboplastin time: coagulation screening test dependent primarily on Factors X, VIII, and IX
Acquired inhibitor
a substance (usually an Ab) circulating in plasma that interferes with the function of one or more procoagulant facotrs. Acquired = not congenital
Factor VIII
procoagulant factor necessary for normal clot formation and conversion of firbinogen to fibrin
Von Willebrand's Factor (vWF)
a large protein produced by endothelial cells that circulates in plasma as a multimer; serves as a carrier protein for Factor VIII
Fibrinogen (Factor I):
Plasma protein that is acted upon by thrombin to make fibrin though cleavage of some portions
the polypeptide derived from fibrinogen that links together to form the fibrillar basis of clots
Reference interval
normal range or range not predictive of disease
Normal range
values in an analysis that are considered normal, usually encompasses ~95% of normal adult values

if distribution in population is Gaussian, range is usually +/- 2 standard deviations
"negativity in health" = the likelihood of a negative (normal) test result when the patient is not sick

(decreases with false positives)
"Positivity in disease" = the likelihood of a positive (abnormal) test result if the patient is sick
False positive
Positive (abnormal) test result when patient is not sick
False negative
Negative (normal) test result when patient IS truly sick
True positive
Positive (abnormal) test result when patient is turly sick
True negative
normal (negative) test result when the patient is truly not sick
creatine (phospho)kinase, an enzyme found in muscle cells
an isoform of CK found predominantly in myocardiocytes
lactate dehydrogenase, an enzyme found in many tissues, including myocardiocytes
a form of B-type Natriuretic Peptide found in myocardiocytes and released on their stress; cleaved to BNP
ROC Curve
Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve: A curve describing the ability of a test to correctly distinguish health from disease
Positive predictive value:
the probability in a given population that a postive (abnormal) result is due to the presence of disease; that is, if the result is abnormal, what is the change the patient really has this disease
Negative predictive value
the probability (in a given population) that a negative (normal) result is found in health; that is, if the result is normal, what is the chance the patient really does not have the disease
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
a change (mutation) in the genetic code at a single base
polymerase chain rxn: analytic method that uses enzymes to amplify a specific section of the genome so that its presence can be detected. uses a "primer" (DNA or RNA complementary to the squence of the genome being sought) and a polymerase to make copies of the targeted section of the genome. occurs in temp-dept "cycles" during which the primer can anneal wiht the genome and be replicated
Transcription-mediated amplification
a variant of PCR accomplished all at one temperature
Internal control:
a sample of material similar to the analyte that is added to the sample and that will be acted upon in the testing system in the same manner as the analyte; an expected result documents completion of the system and assay
inflammation of the kidney centered in the glomerulus
immune disease targeting an Ag native to the patient
reactive cells in the columerular space (leading to fibrosis and obliteration of glomeruli)
dendritic cells
cells of the immune system that are responsible for recognizing and presenting antigens to T lymphocytes to generate cytotoxic T cells
cytotoxic T cells
t lymphocytes primed to respond to specific Ags with the ability to kill the cell displaying the Ag
polypeptides produced by one cell (usually lymphocytes) to alter the fxn of another. usual requirements through exposure to unusually large multimers of vWF. usualyl caused by a deficiency of ADAMTS-13 activity leading to vWF not being cleaved on release from endothelial cells; these autopolymerize to unusually large size and activate platelets in the absence of other factors usually required. activation of platelets leads to microthrombi and a hemolytic anemia.
a metalloproteinase, normally found in plasma, responsible for cleaving vWF to its normal size
a technique for separating whole blood from a donor or patient into its component parts (returning to the donor/patient) parts not of interest
Plasma exchange
a form of apheresis in which plasma is removed and replaced with normal donor plasma