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56 Cards in this Set

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The __________ is defined as any injury or disease producing physiological derangement in the body that results in the death of the individual.
cause of death
The _____________ is defined as the actual physiological derangement that is produced by the cause of death that results in death.
mechanism of death
Give examples of cause of death.
gunshot to the head, drowning, drug overdose
Give examples of mechanism of death
hemorrhage, arrhythmia, asphyxia
The _____________ is generally defined as the circumstances surrounding the death.
manner of death
Name the five manners of death.
Suicide, Homicide, Accident, Undetermined, and Natural.
True or false: homicide implies intent.
false
True or false: approximately half of forensic pathology cases are natural deaths that are sudden, unexpected, and often unwitnessed.
true
A gunshot wound in which the muzzle of the weapon was directly against the skin is called a ___________.
contact gunshot wound
A gun shot wound where gasses fired into the tissue resulting in radiating tears or splitting of tissues is a ___________.
hard/firm contact gunshot wound
Powder stippling is a characteristic of which type of gunshot wound.
intermediate range
A gunshot wound in which there are no features to indicate range of fire is called a _________.
indeterminant range
What specimens can be retained at autopsy for toxicological examination.
Blood, urine, vitreous humor, liver tissue, bile or gastric contents.
What are the three main classes of abused drugs resulting in deaths.
Cocaine, opioids, and methamphetamines.
Once ingested, cocaine is metabolized rapidly to _________.
benzoylecogonine
If there is co-ingestion of ethanol, parent cocaine may be metabolized to _________.
cocaethylene
True or false: cocaethylene is not toxic and simply excreted.
false
What is the mechanism of cocaine toxicity (generally).
cardiac arrhythmia
Since cocaine activates the sympathetic nervous system, it is known as a ___________ or ____________ agent.
Sympathomimetic, adrenergic
_________ are defined as actual alkaloid extracts of opium and include _________ and __________.
Opiates, morphine, codeine
An _________ is defined as any medication binding to opioid receptors.
opioid
True or false: opioids are members of the opiate family.
false
___________ opioids are produced within the body and include _________ and _______ whereas ________ opioids are either semisynthetic or fully synthetic.
1) endogenous, 2) endorphins 3) enkephalins 4) exogenous
Semi-synthetic opioids include ________, ________, and _________. Fully synthetic opioids include ________, __________, and ________.
Semi: heroin, oxycodone, and hydrocodone
Fully: methadone, fentanyl, propoxyphene
Saturation of opioid receptors in opioid toxicity results in relative _____________.
respiratory depression
A frothy fluid discharge commonly seen after opioid toxicity is called a ___________ and is a result of profound ________.
foam cone, pulmonary edema
True or false: developing tolerance is not possible when it comes to opioids.
false
What is the chemical name of heroin.
diacetylmorphine
Heroin is rapidly metabolized to ___________, which is further metabolized to _________.
6-monoacetylmorphine(6-MAM), morphine
True or false: If only morphine is found in the blood, recent heroin use can not be confirmed toxicologically.
true
What is the toxic chemical component of antifreeze.
Ethylene glycol.
Ethylene glycol is metabolized into toxic intermediates ________ and _________.
oxylate, oxalic acid
Oxylate crystals may be visualized in which organ.
the kidneys
True or false: When there is acute alcohol toxicity and the ethanol level itself is not toxic, there is often a contributing cause of death.
true
The earliest and reversible type of alcoholic liver damage is known as _________ or ___________.
hepatic steatosis, fatty liver
What is another name for the irreversible liver injury known as hepatic fibrosis.
cirrhosis
How long to ethanol levels in vitreous lag behind ethanol levels in the blood.
about two hours
True or false: If the vitreous ethanol level is lower than the blood ethanol level, the individual died in an elimination phase.
false
Carbon monoxide has at least ____x greater affinity in binding hemoglobin than does oxygen.
200
True or false: Carbon monoxide binds hemoglobin reversibly.
false
In examination of carbon monoxide saturation in post mortem blood, normal levels up to ___% can be seen. This amount can increase up to ____% in heavy smokers.
5%, 15%
The "3 C's" of cherry red lividity are what?
1) carbon monoxide, 2) cyanide, 3) cold
Measuring carbon monoxide levels in fire deaths can tell us what?
Whether or not the person was alive during the fire.
Cooling of the body postmortem is known as ________.
algor mortis
Stiffening of the muscles postmortem is know as _______.
rigor mortis
Pooling of blood postmortem is known as ________.
livor mortis
True or false: During rigor mortis, the muscles continue to stiffen and remain stiff.
false
Explain what happens in each 12 hour period when referring to the "Rule of 12's."
0-12: rigor progressively strengthens
12-24: rigor remains fixed and firmly established
24-36: rigor progressively passes
After 12-16 hours, livor mortis will become ________.
fixed
What two things can livor mortis tell a forensic pathologist?
1) Which rigor stage (1st or 3rd) the individual is in
2) If the person has been moved after death
True or false: Potassium levels in the vitreous rise linearly after death.
true
True or false: Like potassium, glucose levels also rise postmortem.
false
In a healthy person, glucose levels will be near _______ within several hours of death.
zero
Very high postmortem levels of glucose indicate the individual died of _______________. This is further supported by the finding of _________.
diabetic ketoacidosis, acetone
Early decompositional changes include _________, _________, and _________.
1)slippage of skin, 2) marbling, and 3) gaseous bloating of a body
A particular form of decomposition occurring in arid environments is termed _________.
mummification