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54 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Cells that synthesize bone and later become osteocytes are called what?
Osteoblasts
Mature cells that occupy haversian systems in bone are called what?
Osteocytes
Multinucleated cells that resorb and remodel bone are called what?
Osteoclasts
Name at least three matrix components of bone.
1. collagen
2. proteoglycans
3. hydroxyapatite crystals
4. bone marrow
5. blood vessels
What happens in intramembranous ossification?
Mesenchymal cells directly become bone.
What happens in endochondral ossification?
Cartilage mineralizes to become bone.
Where is new bone formed for growing in a child?
The growth plate
What is the portion of bone at the end of a growth plate next to a joint?
The epiphysis
What is the bone adjacent to growth plate where new bone is mineralizing?
Metaphysis
What is the middle of a tubular bone called?
The diaphysis
What is the periosteum?
A layer of tissue surrounding bone that provides nutrition and assists in circumferential growth.
Which type of bone is stronger: cortical or woven?
Cortical
Name the four classifications of pathological conditions in bone.
1. Metabolic
2. Traumatic
3. Infections
4. Neoplastic
What are the two metabolic bone diseases we discussed in class?
1. Osteomalacia
2. Osteoporosis
Osteomalacia is due to a deficiency in which vitamin?
Vitamin D
The childhood form of osteomalacia is called what?
Rickets
True or false: The mineralization process is abnormal in osteoporosis?
False
What can caused increased risk of osteoporosis?
Menopause, pregnancy, immobilization, steroids, thyroid disease, and cigarette smoking.
What can be used to treat osteoporosis?
Calcium, vitamin D, estrogens, and fluorides.
What are the three phases of fracture healing?
1. Inflammatory
2. Reparative
3. Remodeling
What is formed during the reparative stage of fracture healing?
A callus
What two types of fractures are considered especially problematic?
1. Open fractures
2. Comminuted fractures
What is an infection of bone called?
Osteomyelitis
What organisms are the most common cause of bone infections?
Staphylococcus
Which disease can causes osteomyelitis in open foot wounds requiring amputation?
diabetes
Which two types of bone neoplasms are present in children?
1. Osteosarcoma
2. Ewing Sarcoma
Which neoplasm in children is a highly malignant tumor that produces bone?
osteosarcoma
Which neoplasm in children is a malignant tumor of mesenchymal cells?
Ewing Sarcoma
Which two types of bone neoplasms are present in adults?
1. Multiple myeloma
2. Metastatic diseases
True or false: Multiple myelomas are the most common neoplastic bone lesion in adults.
False.
Name five types of cancer that metastasize to the bones.
1. breast
2. prostate
3. lung
4. kidney
5. thyroid
Which two areas of the bodies are most commonly involved in metastatic disease?
The spine and the proximal femur.
What is a pathologic fracture?
A break that happens in weak, abnormal bone.
Name the three types of joints. Which is both the most common and most mobile?
1. Synarthroses
2. Amphiarthroses
3. Diarthroses (most common/mobile)
What type of collagen is articular cartilage made up of?
type II collagen
How are collagen fibers arranged in articular cartilage?
Paralell to the axis of motion
True or false: Articular cartilage is composed of >70% water.
True
What type of joint does synovial tissue line?
Synovial joints
What four things to diarthroidal joints need to survive?
1. normal distribution of loads
2. good ligamentous stability
3. normal lubrication and nutrition from the synovium
4. no inflammatory changes in the synovium
What is the most common form of arthritis?
osteoarthritis
True or false: osteoarthritis usually involves an inflammatory response.
False
Are ligaments normal or abnormal in osteoarthritis?
Normal
What is the name for the type of arthritis that is a systemic autoimmune disease?
Rheumatoid arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis is primarily a disease of the ________.
Synovium
What is often required to keep rheumatoid arthritis patients ambulatory?
Multiple joint replacements.
Are joint infections more common in adults or children?
Children
The route of joint infection is usually __________.
Hematogenous
What substance is the primary cause of gout pain?
Uric acid/sodium urate crystals.
What two drugs can be used to treat gout?
1. allopurinol
2. probenecid
True or false: Overproduction of uric acid is the only cause of gout.
False
True or false: There is no synovial fluid in intervertebral joints.
True
Name the structure found in between vertebrae that acts as a shock absorber.
Intervertebral disc
When the nucleus of an intervertebral disc ruptures through the annulus and pushes on a nerve, this is called a __________.
Herniated disc
True or false: Herniated discs are most common in the thoracic spine.
False