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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
They key function of the respiratory system is the maintain ____ and ____ homeostasis.
CO2, O2
The term ____________ is used interchangeably with reduced PaCO2 and ______________ with increased PaCO2.
hyperventilation, hypoventilation
Reduction of arterial PO2 is known as __________.
hypoxemia
Name the mechanisms of hypoxemia.
1) low inspired oxygen 2) impaired diffusion 3) hypoventilation 4) low V/Q 5) right-to-left shunt
True or false: By definition, static lung volumes are measured while no flow is occurring.
true
________ volume is the volume of air remaining at the end of the forced exhalation.
residual
_____________ volume is the maximum volume of air exhaled by forced expiration after the end of normal exhalation.
expiratory reserve
_______ volume is the volume of air inspired with each breath.
tidal
_____________ volume is the maximum volume of air inhaled by forced inspiration after inhaling a normal tidal volume.
inspiratory reserve
______________ is the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of a normal breath and is the sum of the ______ and the _________.
functional residual capacity, expiratory reserve volume, residual volume
___________ is the maximal volume inhaled from normal end expiration and is the sum of __________ and __________.
inspiratory capacity, tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume
__________ is the volume of air inhaled or exhaled between maximal inspiratory and expiratory effect.
vital capacity
_____________ is the amount of air in the lungs at the end of maximal forced inspiration.
total lung capacity
The two forces that impede inflation of the lung are _________ and _________.
resistance and elastance
When the elastic recoil of the lungs is less, the lung is said to be more __________.
compliant
True or false: In emphysema, the lungs are more compliant.
true
True or false: In fibrotic lungs, the lungs are more compliant.
false
A disease in which total lung capacity is decreased is known as a _____________ disease.
restrictive lung
True or false: In a restrictive lung disease, residual volume could either increase or decrease depending on the specific situation.
true
Reduced ____________ is the hallmark of obstructive airway defects.
FEV1/FVC
What does FVC stand for?
forced vital capacity
What does FEV1 stand for?
forced expiratory volume in the first second
What are two mechanisms of airflow obstruction?
1) narrowing of airway lumen 2) dynamic airway narrowing (collapsed airway)
Which two things can cause narrowing of airway lumen?
1) increased thickness of airway wall and 2) mucus or secretions blocking the lumen
In which diseases is narrowing of the lumen observed?
asthma and COPD
In which disease would dynamic airway narrowing be seen?
emphysema
True or false: the pulmonary circulation is a high resistance system.
false
Increases pressure in the pulmonary vascular system is known as ___________.
pulmonary hypertension
What event can cause acute pulmonary hypertension?
pulmonary thromboembolism
What can cause chronic pulmonary hypertension?
chronic lung disease, recurrent pulmonary thromboembolic disease, or congential heart disease