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63 Cards in this Set

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What effect on reflex intensity does increased gamma motor neuron activity have?
Increased (as gamma motor neuron activity increase the tension in intrafusal muscle fibres)
Name the subcortical descending tract stimulating extensor (antigravity) muscles?
Reticulospinal Tract
What nucleus receives all pain afferents from the face?
Trigeminal nucleus
What nucleus projects climbing fibres to the cerebellum?
Inferior Olivary Nucleus
What is the main site of neurons which degenerate in Huntingdon's Chorea?
Striatum
What is the location of neurons secreting corticotropin-releasing hormone?
Paraventricular Nucleus
Name the site at which peptides directly affecting the pituitary are released?
Median Eminence
What condition can be caused by lesions to the subthalamic nucleus?
Ballism
What is Chlorpromazine used to treat?
Schizophrenia
What is the mode of action of many antipsychotics?
Dopamine antagonists
How do anxiolytics such as Benzodiazepines and Barbiturates work?
Increase GABA action
What would you use Haloperidol to treat?
Schizophrenia
The cerebellum has motor effects on which side of the body?
Ipsilateral
What would be the effects of a blockage of the anterior spinal artery branches to the medial medulla?
Medial Medullary Syndrome
Alternating Hemiplegia - with deviation of tongue to ipsilateral side, contralteral weakness and loss of touch and proprioception. Pain sensation maintained
What would be the effect of a blockage of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery to the lateral medulla?
Lateral Medullary Syndrome
Characterised by sensory deficits affecting the trunk and contralateral extremities and sensory defects (loss of pain and temperature) affecting th ipsilateral face and cranial nerves.
Describe the glycine receptor?
Ionotropic, Chloride Channel, Inhibitory
What is the primary role of the ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus?
Somatosensory Relay
What is the primary role of the ventral lateral nucleus of the thalamus?
Receives input from the basal ganglia and cerebellum, functions in coordination and planning of movement.
What is the primary role of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus?
Alertness, involved in learning and memory
In photoreceptor conduction what is the name of the G protein which activates the phosphodiesterase?
Transducin
In photoreceptor transduction what ac tivates the G protein Transducin?
Photoexcited rhodopsin
Name a glial cell found in the retina?
Muller Cell
(Astroglia
Microglia)
What is the role of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus?
Parasympathetic cranial nerve nucleus suppl
True or false:
Diazepam is used to treat acute status epilepsy?
True
True or false:
Drugs which reduce 5-HT action are a main treatment for depression?
False
True or false:
Drugs which potentiate GABA action are used as anxiolytics?
True
True or false:
Dopamine Agonists are anti-psychotic?
False
True or false:
Dopamine agonists help control the brady kinesia in Parkinsonism
True
How does the internal carotid artery enter the cranial cavity?
Through the carotid canal.
How does the vertebral artery enter the cranial cavity?
Through the foramen magnum.
How does CSF leave the ventricular system?
By entering the dural venous sinuses in the arachnoid granulations (small protrusions of the arachnoid through the dura mater)
Describe the GABA receptor?
Two classes:
GABA-A ionotropic, in which receptor is part of ligand gated ion complex.
GABA-B - metabotropic ie G Protein coupled
What is the effect of the transmitter in the projection from the subthalamic nucleus to the globus pallidus internal segment?
Excitatory
Are ascending fibres in the gracile and cuneate fasciculus ipsilateral or contralateral?
Ipsilateral
Where do first order fibres of the gracile fasciculus synapse?
Gracile Nucleus in Medulla Oblongata of Brainstem
What tract is formed from the second order fibres of the gracile and cuneate fasciculus?
Medial Lemniscus
Where in the spinal cord are enkephalin neurons which modulate sensory transmission?
Dorsal Horn
What tract carries touch/position information from the face?
Trigeminal Lemniscus
What tract carries pain/temperature information from the face?
Trigeminal Tract
What is the site of synaptic relay of sensory information from the face?
Trigeminal Nucleus - then ventroposterio medial nucleus of thalamus
What is the gland lying beneath the optic chiasm?
Pituitary Gland
What nerve contains the stapedius muscle?
Facial Nerve
What would be the effect of a long-standing lesion in the internal capsule on the strength of the stretch reflex?
Increase
What is the principle relay site from cerebral cortex to cerebellar cortex?
Pontine Nucleus of the Pons
What brainstem nucleus contains maps of body and visual space?
Superior Colliculus
What are neuroleptics used to treat?
Psychosis/Schizophrenia
True or False: Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are antiepileptic?
False
What effect does light hitting a photoreceptor have on glutamate release?
It reduces it.
How does an on-centre bipolar respond to light hitting its photoreceptor?
Reduced glutamate causes depolarisation via metabotropic receptor.
How does an off-centre bipolar cell respond to light hitting its photoreceptor?
Reduced glutamate causes hyperpolarisation via ionotropic receptor.
What function is associated with the anterior hypothalamic nucleus?
Thermoregulation (also plays a role in sleep)
Which brainstem nucleus transmits dental pain?
Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus
Name the nucleus receiving fibres from the interposed and dentate nucleus of the cerebellum?
Red Nucleus
Are benzodiazepines addictive?
Yes
Where would you find the cell bodies of neurons projecting nociceptive information to the thalamus?
Dorsal Root Ganglion
What spinal tract is involved in the perception of vibration?
Dorsal Column Medial Lemniscus Tract
What is the cranial nerve causing papillary constriction?
Oculomotor
What is the cranial nerve supplying the carotid sinus and body?
Glossopharyngeal
What ion passes through the GABA-A ion channel?
Chloride Cl-
What is the main component of scars after brain damage?
Reactive Astrocytes (+Microglia)
What effect does dopamine have on the indirect pathway? Through which receptors?
Inhibitory - D2
What effect does dopamine have on the direct pathway? Through which receptors?
Excitatory D1
What is the nucleus projecting climbing fibres to the cerebellum?
Inferior Olivary Nucleus