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23 Cards in this Set

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when does the pineal gland have low melatonin?
in the day, this is when catabolic processes are on
when is saliva thick, under parasymp or sympathetic stim?
parasymp- stim slaiva prod. so less time for 3Na and Cl to move out and K and bicarb to come in.

symp- hass less saliva production and lots of Na leaves.
what are the muscles of mastication? inn by? arise from what pharyngeal pouch?
masseter, temporalis and M+L pterygoids
(actions: lat pt. lowers jaw and temp slides jaw forward)
-first phar. pouch
NOT BUCCINATOR
CN5
most common 1ary disaccharidase defic?
aquired?
sucrase (gluc and fructose)
lactase (glu and galac)
Boorhaave's?
vomit and perforate in L pleural cavity and L pleural effusion and L pneumothorax
Hammans sign?
air under skin, hear it crunch
diglutition?
tongue on hard palate, then bolus goes down and epiglottis closes and bolus rolls over and then post pharynx (upper 1/2 CN 9 and lower CN10) rolls it into the esophagus- and levator veli palatini goes up (CN10)
UES and LES? controlled by what nucleus?
UES- nucleus Ambiguus- lesion = no gag reflex
LES-dorsal motor nuc of CNX- lesion= no peristalsis
what is resp for contraction and relaxation when swallowing?
contrac- vagus and Aurbachs plexus for relaxation- VIP as neurotx

-missing Aurbachs means you have high LES tone and achalasia bc no VIP to dilate
peristalsis 1ary adn 2dary- in small intestines?
colon?
1ary sm int- segmentation
2dary- MMC every 90min
1ary- Haustration
2dary- mass movement
Choanal atresia?
failure of loss of mem bw nasal regoin and post pharynx. when nipple is in baby's mouth- cant breathe
H type fistula?
Tracheo-esoph fistula coughin and choking with each feeding only have episodes during feeding
long term GI bleeding causes what anemia and syndrome?
hyperchromic microcytic anemia
and Plummer Vincent syndrome- long term GI bleeding with esop webs
MC cancer in upper 2/3 of esoph?
sq cell ca and presents with pain in one area bc it ulcerates (odynophagia)
layers of GI tract:
mucosa- prod what?
submucosa- prod what and has what plexus?
muscularis externa-what pexus and how do the mm work?
-Goblet cells in mucosa
-Brunners glands ONLY SUBMUCOSAL GI glands- prod bicarb and has Meissners in submucosa
-musc externa- Auerbachs plexus, circular mm- perstalsis, longit- txm mssg down GI

Gallbladder and stomach only have transverse layer of mm to digest
FACT: when food absorbs all the H+ in your stomach then your basic and g cells are stim and then the g cells also stim the parietal cells to rel intrinsic factor
FACT: chief cells release pepsinogen when the pH is low enough- ONLY PROT DIGESTED IN STOMACH
exo/endo peptidases:
trypsin-
chymotrypsin-
elastase-
carboxypeptidase-
aminopeptidase-
CnBr-
Mercaptoethanol-
trypsin-lys/ arg
chymotrypsin- phe, tyr, threo
elastase- ser, ala, gly
carboxypeptidase- cuts to LEFT
aminopeptidase-cuts to right
CnBr-met
Mercaptoethanol- disulfide bonds
ulcers-
duodenal-
gastric-

blood type assoc, % H.pylori association, assoc or no with acid output?
-duod- 2nd part of duod, 100% assoc with H.pylori, assoc with too much acid output and type O blood

-gastric- most in antrum (70% assoc with H.pylori and is due to breakdown of barrier not too much acid, type A blood)
Adenocarcinoma of the stomach?
mc stomach cancer in goblet cells (mc tumor leiomyoma)
RF: smoking drinking hot substances smoked foods (japanese ppl)
-leather waterbottle appearance, linitus plastica, signet ring cells, virchows node, krukenburg tumor- seeding of ovary by tumor
second messengers-
secretin-
CCK-
motilin-
secretin- cAMP
CCK- IP3 DAG
motilin- IP3 DAG during meals and Calcium/ calmodulin bw meals
cholesterol problems:
triglyceride problems:
fat pads on extensors- achilles and elbow
Xanthomas- coronary problem

Triglyceride on eyebrow: Xanthelesma
duod, jej adn ileum-

absorption: fats, aa, sugars, ADEK B12, Fe
fats: 10 80 10
aa: 10 90
sugars: 10 90
ADEK B12: ileum 100% (crohns)

fe: 90 10

the jejunum is effected by celiac sprue
Henoch- Schonlein purpura?
MC childhood systemic vasculitis- palpable purpura, arthlargia, intestinal hemorrhage (high incid of intussception), melena (black stool due to hemorrhage)