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153 Cards in this Set

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Joint Stock Companies
These were developed to gather the savings from the middle class to support finance colonies. Ex. London Company and Plymouth Company.
Spanish Armada
"Invincible" group of ships sent by King Philip II of Spain to invade England in 1588; Armada was defeated by smaller, more maneuverable English "sea dogs" in the Channel; marked the beginning of English naval dominance and fall of Spanish dominance.
Lord De la Warr
An Englishman who came to America in 1610. He brought the Indians in the Jamestown area a declaration of war from the Virginia Company. This began the four year Anglo-Powhatan War. De la Warr brought in "Irish tactics" to use in battle with the Indians.
A native Indian of America, daughter of Chief Powahatan, who was one of the first to marry an Englishman, John Rolfe, and return to England with him; about 1595-1617; Her brave actions in saving an Englishman paved the way for many positive English and Native relations.
Chief of an Indian confederacy and father to Pochantas. At the time of the English settlement of Jamestown in 1607, he was a friend to John Smith and John Rolfe. When Smith was captured by Indians, he left Smith's fate in the hands of his warriors. His daughter saved John Smith, and the Jamestown colony. Pochantas and John Rolfe were wed, and there was a time of peace between the Indians and English until this chiefs death.
John Rolfe
He was an Englishman who became a colonist in the early settlement of Virginia. He is best known as the man who married the Native American, Pocahontas and took her to his homeland of England. He was also the savior of the Virginia colony by perfecting the tabbaco industry in North America. He died in 1622, during one of many Indian attacks on the colony.
Lord Baltimore
1694- He was the founder of Maryland, a colony which offered religious freedom, and a refuge for the persecuted Roman Catholics.
Sir Walter Raleigh
An English adventurer and writer, who was prominent at the court of Queen Elizabeth I, and became an explorer of the Americas. In 1585, he sponsored the first English colony in America on Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina. It failed and is known as "The Lost Colony."
Oliver Cromwell
Englishman; led the army to over through King Charles I and was successful in 1646. He ruled England in an almost democratic style until his death. His uprising drew English attention away from Jamestown and the other American colonies.
James Oglethorpe
founder of Georgia in 1733; soldier, statesman , philanthropist. Started Georgia as a haven for people in debt because of his interest in prison reform. Almost single-handedly kept Georgia afloat.
John Smith
He took over the leadership role of the English Jamestown settlement in 1608. Most people in the settlement at the time were only there for personal gain and did not want to help strengthen the settlement. Smith therefore told the people, "people who do not work do not eat." His leadership saved the Jamestown settlement from collapsing.
A unified country under a ruler which share common goals and pride in a nation. The rise of this began after England's defeat of the Spanish Armada. This event sparked nationalistic goals in exploration which were not thought possible with the commanding influence of the Spanish who may have crushed their chances of building new colonies.
The process of buying people (generally Africans) who come under the complete authority of their owners for life, and intended to be worked heavily; became prominent in Colonial times around the mid to late 1600's ( but also to a lesser degree, concerning natives during the early 1500's) because of the labor intensive nature of the crops being grown, and the desire for a profit; mainly used on southern plantations, but also a little bit in the north; brought Africans to America, who have now become an integral part of our culture
Caused by the desire of land-owning lords to raise sheep instead of crops, lowering the needed workforce and unemploying thousands of poor former-farmers; the lords fenced off the their great quantities of land from the mid to late 1500's forcing many farmers out and into the cities, leading many of them to hire themselves as indentured servants for payment of passage into the New World, and therefore supporting many of the needs of the labor-thirsty plantation owners of the New World
House of Burgeses
This was the first representative assembly in the New World. The London Company authorized the settlers to summon an assembly, known as this. A momentous precedent was thus feebly established, for this assemblage was the first of many miniature parliaments to sprout form the soil of America.
Royal Charter
A document given to the founders of a colony by the monarch that allows for special privileges and establishes a general relationship of one of three types: (1) Royal- direct rule of colony by monarch, (2) Corporate- Colony is run by a joint-stock company, (3) Proprietary- colony is under rule of someone chosen by the monarch. This license guaranteed that colonists would have "rights as all Englishmen"
"Slave Codes"
In 1661 a set of "codes" was made. It denied slaves basic fundamental rights, and gave their owners permission to treat them as they saw fit.
An owner and cultivator of a small farm.
a person who was granted charters of ownership by the king: these people founded colonies such as Maryland, Pennsylvania and Delaware: they founded colonies from 1634 until 1681:a famous proprietor is William Penn
The chief dwelling place of the Iroquois Indians; c. 1500s-1600s; these buildings served as a meeting place as well as the homes for many of the Native Americans. They also provided unity between tribes of Iroquois Confederacy.
A person who settles on land without title or right: Early settlers in North Carolina became squatters when they put their small farms on the new land. They raised tobacco on the land that they claimed, and tobacco later became a major cash crop for North Carolina.
A system of inheritance in which the eldest son in a family received all of his father's land. The nobility remained powerful and owned land, while the 2nd and 3rd sons were forced to seek fortune elsewhere. Many of them turned to the New World for their financial purposes and individual wealth.
Indentured Servitude
These people were Englishmen who were outcasts of their country, would work in the Americas for a certain amount of time as servants.
starving time
The winter of 1609 to 1610 was known as this to the colonists of Virginia. Only sixty members of the original four-hundred colonists survived. The rest died of starvation because they did not possess the skills that were necessary to obtain food in the new world.
Act of Toleration
Act that resulted when the Catholics began feeling threatened by the overwhelming Protestant population. This act was passed in 1649 so all types of Christians could have equal political rights and especially in Maryland the haven of Catholics. Along with this equality Lord Calvert allowed a representative assembly for the Catholics.
Virginia Company
A joint-stock company: based in Virginia in 1607: founded to find gold and a water way to the Indies: confirmed all Englishmen that they would have the same life in the New World, as they had in England, with the same rights: 3 of their ships transported the people that would found Jamestown in 1607.
Iroquois Confederacy
This Indian union was nearly a military power consisting of Mohawks, Oneidas, Cayugas, and Senecas. It was founded in the late 1500s.The leaders were Degana Widah and Hiawatha. The Indians lived in long houses with relatives. Men dominated, but a person's background was determined by the women's family. Different groups banded together but were separate fur traders and fur suppliers. Other groups joined; they would ally with either the French or the English depending on which would be the most to their advantage. During the American Revolution the Confederacy mostly sided with the British. When the British were defeated, most of the Iroquois had to move to reservations in Canada. The morale of the people sank and they had a dying out. In 1799 a leader, Handsome Lake, tried to revive the Iroquois and helped them to be proud and hard-working again.
John Calvin
He was responsible for finding Calvinism, which was reformed Catholicism. He writes about it in "Institutes of a Christian Religion" published in 1536. He believed God was all knowing and everyone was predestined for heaven or hell.
Anne Hutchinson
A religious dissenter whose ideas provoked an intense religious and political crisis in the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1636 and 1638. She challenged the principles of Massachusetts’s religious and political system. Her ideas became known as the heresy of Antinomianism, a belief that Christians are not bound by moral law. She was latter expelled, with her family and followers, and went and settled at present day Rhode Island
Roger Williams
He was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for challenging Puritan ideas. He later established Rhode Island and helped it to foster religious toleration.
Henry Hudson
Discovered what today is known as the Hudson River. Sailed for the Dutch even though he was originally from England. He was looking for a northwest passage through North America.
William Bradford
A pilgrim that lived in a north colony called Plymouth Rock in 1620. He was chosen governor 30 times. He also conducted experiments of living in the wilderness and wrote about them; well known for "Of Plymouth Plantation."
Peter Stuyvesant
A Dutch General; He led a small military expedition in 1664. He was known as "Father Wooden Leg". Lost the New Netherlands to the English. He was governor of New Netherlands
Thomas Hooker
1635; a Boston Puritan, brought a group of fellow Boston Puritans to newly founded Hartford, Connecticut.
William Penn
English Quaker; "Holy Experiment"; persecuted because he was a Quaker; 1681 he got a grant to go over to the New World; area was Pennsylvania; "first American advertising man"; freedom of worship there
John Winthrop
He immigrated from the Mass. Bay Colony in the 1630's to become the first governor and to led a religious experiment. He once said, "we shall be a city on a hill."
King Philip II
He was king of Spain during 1588. During this year he sent out his Spanish Armada against England. He lost the invasion of England. He was also the leader against the Protestant Reformation.
John Cotton
He was a puritan who was a fiery early clergy educated at Cambridge University, immigrated to Massachusetts to avoid persecution by the church of England. He defended the government's duty to enforce religious rules. He preached and prayed up to six hours in a single day.
Sir Edmond Andros
Head of the Dominion of New England in 1686, militaristic, disliked by the colonists because of his affiliation with the Church of England, changed many colonial laws and traditions without the consent of the representatives, tried to flee America after England's Glorious Revolution, but was caught and shipped to England
The "elect"
John Calvin and the Puritans souls who have been destined for eternal bliss or eternal torment; since the beginning of time ; it was discussed by John Calvin in "Institutes of the Christian Religion"
This was vast Dutch feudal estates fronting the Hudson River in the early 1600's. They were granted to promoters who agreed to settle fifty people on them.
Primary idea behind Calvinism; states that salvation or damnation are foreordained and unalterable; first put forth by John Calvin in 1531; was the core belief of the Puritans who settled New England in the seventeenth century.
Colonial period; term used to describe indentured servants who had finished their terms of indenture and could live freely on their own land.
"visible saints"
A religious belief developed by John Calvin held that a certain number of people were predestined to go to heaven by God. This belief in the elect, or ______ figured a major part in the doctrine of the Puritans who settled in New England during the 1600's.
A binding agreement made by the Puritans whose doctrine said the whole purpose of the government was to enforce God's laws. This applied to believers and non-believers.
Protestant Reformation
This revolution of reform was a religious type, during the 16th century. It ended the supremacy of the Catholic Church and resulted in the establishment of the Protestant Churches. Martin Luther and John Calvin were influential in the Protestant Revolution.
Separatists; worried by "Dutchification" of their children they left Holland on the Mayflower in 1620; they landed in Massachetts; they proved that people could live in the new world
New England Confederation
This was a Union of four colonies consisting of the two Massachusetts colonies (The Bay colony and Plymouth colony) and the two Connecticut colonies (New Haven and scattered valley settlements) in 1643. The purpose of the confederation was to defend against enemies such as the Indians, French, Dutch, and prevent intercolonial problems that affected all four colonies.
Set of beliefs that the Puritans followed. In the 1500's John Calvin, the founder of this, preached virtues of simple worship, strict morals, pre-destination and hard work. This resulted in a belief that followers wanting to practice religion, and it brought about wars between Huguenots (Religious French) and Catholics that tore the French kingdom apart.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
One of the first settlements in New England; established in 1630 and became a major Puritan colony. Became the state of Massachussetts, originally where Boston is located. It was a major trading center, and absorbed the Plymouth community
Dominion of New England
In 1686, New England, in conjunction with New York and New Jersey, consolidated under the royal authority -- James II. Charters and self rule were revoked, and the king enforced mercantile laws. The new setup also made for more efficient administration of English Navigation Laws, as well as a better defense system. The Dominion ended in 1688 when James II was removed from the throne.
Navigation Laws
In the 1660's England restricted the colonies; They couldn't trade with other countries. The colonies were only allowed to trade with England.
The Puritans
They were a group of religious reformists who wanted to "purify" the Anglican Church. Their ideas started with John Calvin in the 16th century and they first began to leave England in 1608. Later voyages came in 1620 with the Pilgrims and in 1629, which was the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
General Court
a Puritan representative assembly elected by the freemen; they assisted the governor; this was the early form of Puritan democracy in the 1600's
Pilgrims that started out in Holland in the 1620's who traveled over the Atlantic Ocean on the Mayflower. These were the purest, most extreme Pilgrims existing, claiming that they were too strong to be discouraged by minor problems as others were.
Members of the Religious Society of Friends; most know them as the _____. They believe in equality of all peoples and resist the military. They also believe that the religious authority is the decision of the individual (no outside influence). Settled in Pennsylvania.
Protestant ethic
mid 1600's; a commitment made by the Puritans in which they seriously dwelled on working and pursuing worldly affairs.
Mayflower Compact
1620- A contract made by the voyagers on the Mayflower agreeing that they would form a simple government where majority ruled.
Fundamental Orders
In 1639 the Connecticut River colony settlers had an open meeting and they established a constitution. It made a Democratic government. It was the first constitution in the colonies and was a beginning for the other states' charters and constitutions.
Willam Berkeley
He was a British colonial governor of Virginia from 1642-52. He showed that he had favorites in his second term which led to the Bacon's rebellion in 1676, which he ruthlessly suppressed. He had poor frontier defense.
Headright system
Way to attract immigrants; gave 50 acres of land to anyone who paid their way and/or any plantation owner that paid an immigrants way; mainly a system in the southern colonies.
In the 1600's, Puritan preachers noticed a decline in the religious devotion of second-generation settlers. To combat this decreasing piety, they preached a different type of sermon. These people focused on the teachings of Jeremiah, a Biblical prophet who warned of doom.
Middle Passage
Middle segment of the forced journey that slaves made from Africa to America throughout the 1600's; it consisted of the dangerous trip across the Atlantic Ocean; many slaves perished on this segment of the journey
Bacon’s Rebeillion
In 1676, Bacon, a young planter led a rebellion against people who were friendly to the Indians. In the process he torched Jamestown, Virginia and was murdered by Indians.
Leisler’s Rebellion
1689-1691, an ill- starred bloody insurgency in New York City took place between landholders and merchants.
Halfway Covenant
A Puritan church document; In 1662, this agreement allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members; Women soon made up a larger portion of Puritan congregations.
Johnathan Edwards
He was an American theologian and Congregational clergyman, whose sermons stirred the religious revival, called the Great Awakening. He is known for his "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God " sermon.
Benjamin Franklin
He was born January 17, 1706 in Boston Massachusetts. He taught himself math, history, science, English, and five other languages. He owned a successful printing and publishing company in Philadelphia. He conducted studies of electricity, invented bifocal glasses, the lighting rod, and the stove. He was an important diplomat and statesman and eventually signed the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States.
Michel-Guillaume de Crevecour
French settler on America in the 1770's; he posed the question of what "American" is after seeing people in America like he had never seen before. American really became a mixture of many nationalities.
George Whitefield
He came into the picture in 1738 during the Great Awakening, which was a religious revival that spread through all of the colonies. He was a great preacher who had recently been an alehouse attendant. Everyone in the colonies loved to hear him preach of love and forgiveness because he had a different style of preaching. This led to new missionary work in the Americas in converting Indians and Africans to Christianity, as well as lessening the importance of the old clergy.
John Peter Zenger
He was a newspaper printer in the eighteenth century. Using the power of the press, he protested the royal governor in 1734-35. He was put on trial for this "act of treason." The jury went against the royal governor and ruled Zenger innocent. This set the standards for democracy and, most importantly, for the freedom of the press.
Phillis Wheatley
Born around 1753, She was a slave girl who became a poet. At age eight, she was brought to Boston. Although she had no formal education, she was taken to England at age twenty and published a book of poetry. She died in 1784.
John S. Copley
1738-1815 a famous Revolutionary era painter, Copley had to travel to England to finish his study of the arts. Only in the Old World could he find subjects with the leisure time required to be painted, and the money needed to pay him for it. Although he was an American citizen, he was loyal to England during The Revolution.
Paxton Boys
They were a group of Scots-Irish men living in the Appalachian hills that wanted protection from Indian attacks. They made an armed march on Philadelphia in 1764. They protested the lenient way that the Quakers treated the Indians. Their ideas started the Regulator Movement in North Carolina.
Great Awakening
This was a religious revival held in the 1730's and 1740's to motivate the colonial America. Motivational speakers such as Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield helped to bring Americans together.
Catawba Nation
A group of the remains of several different Indian tribes that joined together in the late 1700's. This group was in the Southern Piedmont region. Forced migration made the Indians join in this group.
Regulator Movement
It was a movement during the 1760's by western North Carolinians, mainly Scots-Irish, that resented the way that the Eastern part of the state dominated political affairs. They believed that the tax money was being unevenly distributed. Many of its members joined the American Revolutionists.
Old Lights
In the early 1700's, these were simply orthodox members of the clergy who believed that the new ways of revivals and emotional preaching were unnecessary.
New Lights
These people were the more modern- thinking members of the clergy who strongly believed in the Great Awakening. These people helped popularize missionary work and assisted in the founding educational centers now known as Ivy League schools
triangular trade
This was a small, profitable trading route started by people in New England who would barter a product to get slaves in Africa, and then sell them to the West Indies in order to get the same cargo of goods that would help in repeating this process. This form of trading was used by New Englanders in conjunction with other countries in the 1750's.
Molasses Act
A British law passed in 1773 to change a trade pattern in the American colonies by taxing molasses imported into colonies not ruled by Britain. Americans responded to this attempt to damage their international trade by bribing and smuggling. Their protest of this and other laws led to revolution.
A group of restless people who fled their home in Scotland in the 1600s to escape poverty and religious oppression. They first relocated to Ireland and then to America in the 1700s. They left their mark on the backcountry of Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia. These areas are home to many Presbyterian churches established by the Scots-Irish. Many people in these areas are still very independent like their ancestors.
Samuel de Champlain
He was a French explorer who sailed to the West Indies, Mexico, and Panama. He wrote many books telling of his trips to Mexico City and Niagara Falls. His greatest accomplishment was his exploration of the St. Lawrence River and his latter settlement of Quebec.
William Pitt
He was a British leader from 1757-1758. He was a leader in the London government, and earned himself the name, "Organizer of Victory". He led and won a war against Quebec. Pittsburg was named after him.
Robert de La Salle
He was responsible for naming Louisiana. He was the first European to float down the Mississippi river to the tip from Canada and upon seeing the beautiful river valley named Louisiana after his King Louis XIV in 1682.
James Wolfe
He was the British general whose success in the Battle of Quebec won Canada for the British Empire. Even though the battle was only fifteen minutes, he was killed in the line of duty. This was a decisive battle in the French and Indian War.
Edward Braddock
He was a British commander during the French and Indian War. He attempted to capture Fort Duquesne in 1755. He was defeated by the French and the Indians. At this battle, he was mortally wounded.
Indian Chief; led post war flare-up in the Ohio River Valley and Great Lakes Region in 1763; his actions led to the Proclamation of 1763; the Proclamation angered the colonists.
This was a group of French Protestants that lived from about 1560 to 1629. Protestantism was introduced into France between 1520 and 1523, and the principles were accepted by many members of the nobility, the intellectual classes, and the middle class. At first the new religious group was royally protected, but toward the end of the reign of King Francis I they were persecuted. Nevertheless, they continued to grow.
French and Indian War
Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.
Albany Congress
A conference in the United States Colonial history form June 19 through July 11, 1754 in Albany New York. It advocated a union of the British colonies for their security and defense against French Held by the British Board of Trade to help cement the loyalty of the Iroquois League. After receiving presents, provisions and promises of Redress of grievances. 150 representatives if tribes withdrew without committing themselves to the British cause.
Proclamation of 1763
This was an English law enacted after gaining territory from the French at the end of the French and Indian War. It forbade the colonists from settling beyond the Appalachian Mountains. The Colonists were no longer proud to be British citizens after the enactment. This law caused the first major revolt against the British.
John Hancock
Nicknamed "King of the Smugglers" ; He was a wealthy Massachusetts merchant in 1776 who was important in persuading the American colonies to declare their independence from England. He was the ring leader in the plot to store gunpowder which resulted in the battles in Lexington and Concord. These battles began the American Revolution.
Lord North
1770's-1782 King George III's stout prime minister (governor during Boston Tea Party) in the 1770's. He rule fell in March of 1782, which therefore ended the rule of George III for a short while.
George Grenville
He was the British Prime Minister from 1763-1765. To obtain funds for Britain after the costly 7-Years War, in 1763 he ordered the Navy to enforce the unpopular Navigation Laws, and in 1764 he got Parliament to pass the Sugar Act, which increased duties on sugar imported from the West Indies. He also, in 1765, brought about the Quartering Act, which forced colonists to provide food and shelter to British soldiers, who many colonists believed were only present to keep the colonists in line. In 1765, he imposed the Stamp Act, which put taxes on everything from newspapers to marriage licenses. These measures disgruntled the colonists, created anger towards the mother country, unified them, and helped provide the beginnings of the American Revolution.
Samuel Adams
Often called the "Penman of the Revolution" He was a Master propagandist and an engineer of rebellion. Though very weak and feeble in appearance, he was a strong politician and leader that was very aware and sensitive to the rights of the colonists. He organized the local committees of correspondence in Massachusetts, starting with Boston in 1772. These committees were designed to oppose British policy forced on the colonists by spreading propaganda.
Charles Townshend
He was in control of the British ministry and was nicknamed "Champagne Charley" for his brilliant speeches in Parliament while drunk. He persuaded Parliament in 1767 to pass the Townshend Acts. These new regulations was a light import duty on glass, white lead, paper, and tea. It was a tax that the colonist were greatly against and was a near start for rebellions to take place.
John Adams
He patriot of the American Revolution, second president of the US; president from 1796-1800; attended the Continental Congress in 1774 as a delegate from Georgia; swayed his countrymen to take revolutionary action against England which later gained America independence from the English.
King George III
He was the king of England in the 1770's.Though he was a good man he was not a good ruler. He lost all of the 13 American colonies and caused America to start to gain its freedom.
Baron Von Steuben
A stern, Prussian drillmaster that taught American soldiers during the Revolutionary War how to successfully fight the British.
According to this doctrine, the colonies existed for the benefit of the mother country; they should add to its wealth, prosperity, and self-sufficiency. The settlers were regarded more or less as tenants. They were expected to produce tobacco and other products needed in England and not to bother their heads with dangerous experiments in agriculture or self-government.
No Taxation without Representation"
This is a theory of popular government that developed in England. This doctrine was used by the colonists to protest the Stamp Act of 1765. The colonists declared that they had no one representing them in Parliament, so Parliament had no right to tax them. England continued to tax the colonists causing them to deny Parliament's authority completely. Thus, the colonists began to consider their own political independence. This eventually led to revolutionary consequences.
Royal Veto
This decision was when legislation passed by the colonial assemblies conflicted with British regulations. It was then declared void by the Privy Council. It was resented by the colonists but was only used 469 times out of 8563 laws.
Internal Taxation
This taxed goods within the colonies and acted much like a sales tax. The Stamp Act of 1765 is an example of internal taxation. Colonists were typically against these during the eve of revolution
External Taxation
This applied to imports into the colonies. The merchant importing the good paid the tax on it, much like the Sugar Act of 1764. Colonists were more accepting of this and more opposed to internal taxation.
"Virtual" representation
Theory that claimed that every member of Parliament represented all British subjects, even those Americans in Boston or Charleston who had never voted for a member of the London Parliament.
To abstain from using, buying, or dealing with; happens all of the time everywhere all over the world; labor unions, consumer groups, countries do this too products to force a company or government to change its politics
The Boards of Trade
An English legislative body, based in London, that was instituted for the governing and economic controlling of the American colonies. It lacked many powers, but kept the colonies functioning under the mercantile system while its influence lasted. The height of the Boards' power was in the late 1690's
Sons of Liberty
An organization established in 1765, these members (usually in the middle or upper class) resisted the Stamp Act of 765. Even though the Stamp Act was repealed in 1766, the Sons of Liberty combined with the Daughters of Liberty remained active in resistance movements.
Quebec Act
After the French and Indian War, the English had claim the Quebec Region, a French speaking colony. Because of the cultural difference, English had a dilemma on what to do with the region. This act, passed in 1774, allow the French Colonist to go back freely to their own customs. The colonists have the right to have access to the Catholic religion freely. Also, it extended to Quebec Region north and south into the Ohio River Valley. This act created more tension between the colonists and the British which lead to the American Revolution.
Navigation Acts
Between late 1600s and the early 1700s, the British passed a series of laws to put pressure on the colonists (mostly tax laws). These laws are known as what acts. Example: 1651- All goods must be shipped in colonial or English ships, and all imports to colonies must be on colonial or English ships or the ships of the producer. 1660- Incorporation of law of 1651. it also enumerated articles, such as sugar, tobacco, and cotton, can only be exported to England from the colonies. 1663- a.k.a. the staple act of 1663- all imports to the colonies must go through England. 1673- an add-on to the Staple Act- collects tax from imports to the colonies for England. 1696- in theory, the last act of this- Enforces all of these acts, and establish penalty for violators. Also, establish admiralty courts in the colonies for violation investments. Molasses Act of 1733- force mainland colonies to buy molasses from the British West Indies.
Declaratory Act
In 1766, the English Parliament repealed the Stamp Act and at the same time signed the this act into law. This document stated that Parliament had the right "to bind" the colonies "in all cases whatsoever." It is important in history because it stopped the violence and rebellions against the tax on stamps. Also, it restarted trade with England, which had temporarily stopped as a defiant reaction to the Stamp Act.
First Continental Congress
a convention and a consultative body that met for seven weeks, from September 5 to October 26, 1774, in Philadelphia; it was the American's response to the Intolerable Acts; considered ways of redressing colonial grievances; all colonies except Georgia sent 55 distinguished men in all; John Adams persuaded his colleagues toward revolution; they wrote a Declaration of Rights and appeals to British American colonies, the king, and British people; created the Association which called for a complete boycott of English goods; the Association was the closet thing to a written constitution until the Constitution; as time wore on, the petitions were rejected; created a pathway to revolution
Sugar Act 1764
This act was the first law ever passed by Parliament. The act was put in place for raising revenue in the colonies for the crown. It increased the duties on foreign sugar, mainly from the West Indies. After protests from the colonists, the duties were lowered.
Townshend Acts
In 1767 "Champagne Charley" Townshend persuaded Parliament to pass the these acts. These acts put a light import duty on such things as glass, lead, paper, and tea. The acts met slight protest from the colonists, who found ways around the taxes such as buying smuggled tea. Due to its minute profits, these acts were repealed in 1770, except for the tax on tea. The tax on tea was kept to keep alive the principle of Parliamentary taxation.
Quartering Act
Law passed by Britain to force colonists to pay taxes to house and feed British soldiers. Passed in the same few years as the Navigation Laws of 1763, the Sugar Act of 1764, and the Stamp Act of 1765 Stirred up even more resentment for the British. The Legislature of New York was suspended in 1767 for failing to comply with this Act.
The Association
A document produced by the Continental Congress in 1775 that called for a complete boycott of British goods. This included non-importation, non-exportation and non-consumption. It was the closest approach to a written constitution yet from the colonies. It was hoped to bring back the days before Parliamentary taxation. Those who violated this “congress” in America were tarred and feathered
Stamp Act
In 1765 Parliament passed the this act, requiring the colonists to pay for a stamp to go on many of the documents essential to their lives. These documents included deeds, mortgages, liquor licenses, playing cards, and almanacs. The colonists heartily objected to this direct tax and in protest petitioned the king, formed the Stamp Act Congress, and boycotted English imports. In 1766 Parliament repealed this act, a major victory for colonists.
Committees of Correspondence
Samuel Adams started the first committee in Boston in 1772 to spread propaganda and secret information by way of letters. They were used to sustain opposition to British policy. The committees were extremely effective and a few years later almost every colony had one. This is another example of the colonies breaking away from Europe to become Americans.
German soldiers hired by George III to smash Colonial rebellion, proved good in mechanical sense but they were more concerned about money than duty.
Admiralty courts
Offenders of the Sugar Act of 1764 and the Stamp Act of 1765 were tried in courts with no juries where the defendant was presumed guilty until proven innocent. Americans felt their basic rights as Englishmen were being violated, and the animosity created fuel desires for independence from England.
Boston Tea Party
A "revolt" on the Tea Act passed by Parliament; Sons of Liberty dressed up like Indians raided English ships in Boston Harbor. They dumped thousands of pounds of tea into the harbor. As a result the Massachusetts charter was taken away.
(Tories) Colonials loyal to the king during the American Revolution.
Stamp Act Congress
met in New York City with twenty-seven delegates from nine colonies in 1765; had little effect at the time but broke barriers and helped toward colonial unity; the act caused an uprising because there was no one to sell the stamps and the British did not understand why the Americans could not pay for their own defense; the act was repealed in 1766.
Intolerable Acts
These Acts passed in 1774, following the Boston Tea Party, that were considered unfair because they were designed to chastise Boston in particular, yet effected all the colonies by the Boston Port Act which closed Boston Harbor until damages were paid.
This name is associated to two congresses. The first is in 1774 and the second is in 1775. They both take place in Philadelphia. This congress brought the leaders of the thirteen colonies together. This was the beginning of our national union.
George Washington
He pulled his small force back into Fort Necessity where he was overwhelmed (1754) by the French. He was the commander of Virginia’s frontier troops as a colonel. Left the army in 1758. Also the first President of the United States. Took office (Apr.30, 1789) in New York City.
William Howe
English General who commanded the English forces at Bunker Hill. Howe did not relish the rigors of winter campaigning, and he found more agreeable the bedtime company of his mistress. At a time when it seemed obvious that he should join the forces in New York, he joined the main British army for an attack on Philadelphia.
Nathanael Greene
He was a colonial general who fought the English in the late eighteenth century-- used fighting tactic of retreating and getting the English to pursue for miles. Historical Significance: Cleared Georgia and South Carolina of British troops.
Benedict Arnold
He was an American General during the Revolutionary War (1776). He prevented the British from reaching Ticonderoga. Later, in 1778, he tried to help the British take West Point and the Hudson River but he was found out and declared a traitor.
John Burgoyne
He was a British general that submitted a plan for invading New York state from Canada. He was then given charge of the army. Though defeated, he advanced troops near Lake Champlain to near Albany. He surrendered at Saratoga on Oct. 17, 1777. This battle helped to bring France into the war as an ally for the United States, this has been called one of the decisive battles of history
Charles Cornwallis
He was a British general who fought in the Seven Years War, was elected to the House of Commons in 1760, and lost battles to George Washington on December 26, 1776 and on January 3, 1777. He made his mark on history, even though he could never ensure an overall British win over the Americans. He had many individual victories and losses against the Americans in the American Revolution and will always be remembered as a great and powerful general.
Thomas Paine
He was a passionate and persuasive writer who published the bestseller, Common Sense in 1776. He had the radical idea that the colonies should set up America as an independent, democratic, republic away from England. Over 120,000 copies of his book were sold and this helped spark the colonists rebellion later that year.
Barry St. Leger
He was a British officer in the American Revolutionary War. He led a British advance into New York's Mohawk Valley in the summer of 1777. Hoping to join the British army of General John Burgoyne at Albany, St. Leger was halted by American militia in Fort Stanwix. His forces were nearly destroyed while repelling an American relief unit at Oriskany, and the approach of additional American troops forced St. Leger to retreat to Canada.
George Rogers Clark
Frontiersman; led the seizing of 3 British forts in 1777; led to the British giving the region north of the Ohio River to the United States.
Richard Henry Lee
He was a member of the Philadelphia Congress during the late 1770's. On June 7, 1776 he declared, "These United colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states." This resolution was the start of the Declaration of Independence and end to British relations.
Horatio Gates
He started in the English army and worked his way up through the ranks. Latter during the revolution he turned sides and was apointed to take charge of the Continental army of the North. One of Gates accomplishments was his victory at Saratoga. His career in the army ended when he lost to General Charles Cornwallis.
John Paul Jones
The commander of one of America's ships; daring, hard-fighting young Scotsman; helped to destroy British merchant ships in 1777; brought war into the water of the British seas.
Thomas Jefferson
He was a member of the House of Burgesses, wrote the Declaration of Independence, was ambassador to France, and was the President of the United States of America. He did all these things before, during, and after the Revolutionary war. With his Declaration of Independence he declared the colonies' freedom from England. While President, he bought the Louisiana Purchase and had Lewis and Clark to explore it.
Marquis de Lafayette
A wealthy French nobleman nicknamed "French Gamecock", made major general of colonial army, got commission on part of his family.
Admiral de Grasse
He operated a powerful French fleet in the West Indies. He advised America he was free to join with them in an assault on Cornwallis at Yorktown. Rochambeau's French army defended British by land and Admiral de Grasse blockaded them by sea. This resulted in Cornwallis's surrender on October 19, 1781.
Patrick Henry
He was a fiery lawyer during revolutionary War times. Supporting a break from Great Britain, he is famous for the words, "give me liberty, or give me death!" which concluded a speech given to the Virginia Assembly in 1775. This quote is a symbol of American patriotism still today. After the American Revolution, he served two terms as governor of Virginia and was also instrumental in the development of the Bill of Rights.
Comte de Rochambeau
Commanded a powerful French army of six thousand troops in the summer of 1780 and arrived in Newport, Rhode Island. They were planning a Franco - American attack on New York.
John Jay
He was the First Chief Justice of the United States, and also an American statesman and jurist. Elected to the Continental Congress, he also helped negotiate the Treaty of Paris w/ Great Britain, ending the American Revolution. Serving as governor of New York State from 1795 to 1801, he was an advocate of a strong national government. Appointed by Washington, he negotiated a settlement when was w/ Britain threatened due to controversies over the Treaty of Paris: it became known as Jay's Treaty. He was also knwon for helping Alexander Hamilton and James Madison write the series of articles known as "The Federalist Papers".
A mercenary is a person hired for service in the army of a foreign country. For example, in the late 1760's George III hired soldiers to fight in the British army against Americans
Natural Rights Theory
The theory that people are born with certain "natural rights." Some say these rights are anything people do in the pursuit of liberty--as long as the rights of others are not impeded.
Privately owned armed ships specifically authorized by congress to prey on enemy shipping. There were over a thousand American privateers who responded to the call of patriotism and profit. The privateers brought in urgently needed gold, harassed the enemy, and raised American morale.(American Revolution, 1775-1783)
Second Continental Congress
The second meeting of a congress met in Philadelphia on May 10, 1775. Three delegates added to the Congress were Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and John Hancock. The Congress took on governmental duties.(United all the colonies for the war effort.) They selected George Washington as Commander in Chief. They encouraged the colonies to set themselves up as states. On July 4, 1776 they adopted the Declaration of Independence. The Congress ended March 1, 1781 when a Congress authorized by the Articles of Confederation took over.
Common Sense
This written in 1776 was one of the most potent pamphlets ever written. It called for the colonists to realize their mistreatment and push for independence from England. The author Thomas Paine introduced such ideas as nowhere in the universe sis a smaller heavenly body control a larger. For this reason their is no reason for England to have control over the vast lands of America. The pamphlet with its high-class journalism as well as propaganda sold a total of 120,000 copies within a few months.
Declaration of Independence
Formally approved by the Congress on July 4, 1776. This "shout heard round the world" has been a source of inspiration to countless revolutionary movements against arbitrary authority. The document sharply separated Loyalists from Patriots and helped to start the American Revolution by allowing England to hear of the colonists disagreements with British authority.
Loyalists / Tories
A colonist in the new world who remained loyal to the British during the American Revolution.
Name given to party of patriots of the new land resisting England prior to the Declaration of Independence.
Treaty of Paris of 1783
The British recognized the independence of the United States. It granted boundaries, which stretched from the Mississippi on the west, to the Great Lakes on the north, and to Spanish Florida on the south. The Yankees retained a share of Newfoundland. It greatly upset the Canadians.