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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
lobes are named after
cranial bones
gyri
elevated (surface regions)
sulci (fissures)
grooves (hidden regions)
3 major gyri
1 precentral gyrus :motor 4
2 postcentral gyrus : somatic sensory 1,2,3
3 superior temporal gyrus: primary auditory 22
precentral gyrus
primary motor cortex (area 4) - processing info LAST
postcentral gyrus
primary somatic sensory cortec (1,2,3) - processing info FIRST
superiortemporal gyrus
secondary audiotry cortex (22)
4 major sulci
1) lateral sulcus : prim. auditory 41
2) central sulcus:
3) calcrin sucus: prim. visual 17
4)longitudinal fissure : sep 2 hemisphere
3 ways to organize cortex
1 functional regions: primary, secondary tertiary
2 anatomical methods : brodmann
3 functional methods: EEG, single and multiple neuron recording, neuroimaging
in each type of cortex layer, there are
1 diff type of neuron
2 diff arrangement of neurons
3 diff paterns of connections between neurons
4 differnet patterns of protein expression
sensory receptor input
touch,vision , hearing, taste, smell
sensory processing in CNS
spinalcord --> brainstem --> cortex
motor system in CNS
cortex --> cerebellum --> basal ganglia
motor system output
spinal cord --> muscle
somatic pathway (anterior spinothalamic tract)
sensory recpetor --> synapse in ipsilaeral spinal cord --> cross --> ascen in contralteral spinal cord and brainstem --> syn in thalamus --> synapese in primary somatic sensory cortex (1,2,3)
visual pathway
sensory receptor in retina --> nasal fiber of CN 2 cross in optic chiasm --> syn in thalamus --> syn in pri visual cortex 17
auditory pathway
sen rect in cochlear --> ipsilateral cochlear nucleus --> bilaterallusup. olivary complex -> syn.laterallemniscus -->syn. inferior colliculus --> medial geniclate complex --> prim aud cortex 41
motor (corticospinal tract)
area 4 --> brainstem --> cross at medullar and spinal cord --> spinal cord --> syn motor neuron in ventral root --> innervate muscle fibers
brocas area lesion
diff produce spech
wenicke area lesion
diff understand words
multiplesclerosis (MS)
destruction (autoimmune) of myelin (white matter)
sign of MS
1 numbness, tingling , heat sensation
2 proprioceptive (coordination defict), dropping object
3 weakness and fatigue
4 visual problem
4 high fres sensory nural HL (norml OAE)
progressive loss of motor neurons in cortexm cranial nerve motor nuclei and spinal cord
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
sign of ALS
paralysis of ALL skeletal muscle but sensation and intellect remain intact
parkinsons
degernation of motor nuclei that provide input to basal ganglia
sign of parkinsons
1 akinesia (without movement)
2 dyskinesia ( abnormal movement)
alzheimers
progressive mental deterioration (4th leading cause of deatrh)
cause of alzheimers
1 global cerebral atrophy from loss ofneurons (10000/day)
2 formation of plaques(protein change)
3 reduction of synapse
4 blood brain barrier breaks down