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41 Cards in this Set

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horizontal plane
- parallel to longitudinal (ant.- pos) axis
- "axial"
Coronal plane
- perpendicular to longitudinal axis
- "transverse"
Sagittal plane
- parallel to midline of body
- "vertical"
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
- consists of
- function
- controlled by
- cranial nerves, spinal verve, associate ganglia
- conduct info to and from CNS
- separate but overlaping part of CNS
2 divisions of PNS
1. autonomic
2. somatic
somatic NS
3 functions?
1. mediates voluntary (conscious!!!!) movement and perception
2. motor innveration of skeletal muscle
3. sensory innvation of skin, muscles, joints
Autonomic NS
1 function?
1. regulates body functions base on sensory input about internal state
Autonomic NS innervate
eyes, heart, lungs, vasculature, hair follicles, sweat glands, abdominal, pelvic viscera
3 subdivisions of autonomic
1. sympathetic
2. parasympathetic
3. enteric
sympathetic NS
1 function?
1. prepares body for an emergency (fight or flight)
primarly unconscious control of Autonomic NS is via activity of ?
hypothalamus
sympathetic prepares body for emergency by:
- increase heart rate and BP
- arteriole constriction in skin and intestine
-arteriole dilation in muscle and brain (more blood to brain and muscle)
- pupil dilation
-hair stands up
- increase perspiration
parasympathetic
3 functions?
- homostasis
- energy conservation
-prepare body for rest
parasympathetic prepares body for rest by:
- decrease heart rate and BP
- normal digestive and respiratory function
- pupil constriction
- decrease perspiration
enteric
2 functions
control smooth mucle function of GI (gastrointestine) tract, pancreas, gall bladder
2. regulate activity of digestive system and prepares it for future events (diarrhea before an exam)
CNS
1 function
integration and coordination of NS information
2 divisions of CNS
1 brain
2 spinal cord
3 parts of brain
forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain
6 parts of forebrain
- cerebral cortex
- basal ganglion
- hippocampus
-amygdala
- thalamus
-hypothalamus
cerebral cortex
4 functions
voluntary movement, language, reasoning, perception
basal ganglion (lentiform nucleaus, striatum)
- COORDINATING MOVEMENT
- SUBCONSCIOUS MOTOR PROGRAMS
actions of basal ganglion is mediated by
connection with cortex and cerebellum
hippocampus
2 functions
learning, memory
amygdala
3 functions
anxiety, learned fear, other emotion
thalamus
3 functions
- soensory integration
- motor integration
mojor relay to cortex
hypothalamus
4 functions
- body tem
- hunger
- thirst
- circadian rhythms
parts of midbrain
1 tectum
2 tegmentum
2 resp. of tectum
1 vision (superior colliculus)
2 audioty ( inferior colliculus
1 function of tegmentum
eye and body movement
3 parts of hindbrain
1 pons
2 cerebellum
3 medulla
funciton of pons
sensory and motor pathways
2 functions of cerebellum
1 learning
2 timing and coordination of skilled motor movement(executive control of motor system)
output of cerebellum is
inhibitory
2 functions of medulla
- sensory and motor pathways
- vital functions
where is cochlear nucleus ?
medulla
grey matter consists of
- neuron cell bodies (soma)
- nuclei
white matter consists of
- mylinated axons
- fiber tracts
ventral (anterior) root of spinal cord
motor
dorsal (posterior) root
sensory fibers
ascending tracts of spinal cord
function?
- proprioception (contraction of joint)
- vibration
- tactile sensation
descending tracts of spinal cord
- visceral and muscular activation