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99 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
___% of mothers of 5-17 year olds are employed
___% of mothers of 0-6 year olds are employed
___% of mothers of 0-30 month-old children are employed
dual-career families have fewer needs for ___, ___, and ____
affection, inclusion, control
Depression, anxiety, somatization, marriage dissatifaction
role conflict
for women especially, high job dissatifaction and absenteeism, life disruption
role conflict
Guilt, fatigue, burnout, question competence
role overload
Emotional stress and physical symptoms
role strain
employed stepmothers ____ in dual-career families
what demographic are single parents at the highest rate, and what is the rate?
African American, 58%
About ____ of families in the US are single parent families
___% of single parent homes are headed by mothers
Almost ____ million children under age 18 are raised by unmarried mothers
____ million children under age 18 have an unmarried partner present
over ___ million children raised by “unmarried father”
___ million single fathers have an unmarried partner
___ of children under 18 (approximately ___ million children) are living with single parents.
1/4, 15
Only about ___ of single mothers receive full amt. of child support
single mothers are more _____ and ____ than married mothers and children are more _____
critical, demanding, noncompliant
wallerstein's divorce study
significant minority of children had permanent scars that lingered through adolescents and into adulthood
hetherington: ___% of children in divorced families did have serious social, emotional or psychological problems
hetherington: ___% of children in intact families did have serious social, emotional or psychological problems
hetherington: most children in divorced families showed _________
showed little long-term damage and were functioning quite well as adults.
hetherington: Within 2 years of their parent’s divorces, most children...
had rebounded and were doing well
hetherington: 70% of divorced parents were... happier lives than before the divorce.
father absence hypothesis
father's absence makes moms encourage more coping mechanisms in boys
economic distress hypothesis
low financial resources explains negative effects of divorce in kids
multiple stress hypothesis
stressors compound effects of divorce on kids
parental hostility hypothesis
more effects on kids when there is high hostility
parental adjustment hypothesis
fewer effects on kids when parents adjust well
chase-landsdale age findings
more problems for kids when divorce was between 11 and 16 and than 7-11
non-custodial fathers less likely to have little/no contact with children if
children were born out of wedlock
Divorced less than 2 years: ____% of fathers have contact with their children
Divorced 3-5 years: ____% of fathers have contact with their children
Divorced 6-10 years: ____% of fathers have contact with their children
Divorced 11 years or more: ____% of fathers have no contact at all with kids
predominant form of step-families
mother with biological children and step-father
All stepfamily members experience __________
role confusion
a major task of the stepfamily system is to...
establish new patterns that regulate the behavior and functioning of all members
early stages of stepfamily formation: stages
fantasy, assimilating the new adult, awareness
early stages of stepfamily formation: summary
Getting started and avoiding pitfalls
middle stages of stepfamily formation: summary
Remodeling the family
later stages of stepfamily formation: summary
putting it all together
middle stages of stepfamily formation: stages
mobilization, action
later stages of stepfamily formation: stages
contact, resolution
during what stage of stepfamily formation does communication become important?
during what stage of stepfamily formation must changes or compromises be made?
during what stage of stepfamily formation must changes and adaptations be implemented on a larger scale?
during what stage of stepfamily formation are actions taken to forge a new stepfamily?
adjustment to _____ role seems easier than adjustment to _______ role
stepfather, stepmother
easier to establish positive stepfather role with _____
younger children
Older children may accept stepfather as a...
companion and support for the mother
After 2 years, ____ of stepfathers were disengaged, vs. ____ of nondivorced fathers
2/5, 1/5
Kurdek & Fine (1991): stepfathers were _________ about the relationship with children than were stepmothers
less optimistic
Kurdek & Fine (1991): level of optimism was correlated with ________
role satisfaction
______ families are found to have more problems than families with _______
stepmother, stepfather
which gender has more problems with stepmothers?
which type of stepparent is more optimistic?
Studies show that children in stepfamilies exhibit _____ adjustment problems to children in single-parent families and ____ adjustment problems than children in original two-parent families.
similar, more
Following parents’ remarriage, __________ show initial increases in problem behavior and disruptions with other family members.
children of all ages
Both boys and girls display more ____________ in step-families
externalizing behaviors
Negative behavior in response to step-family most likely for _______ girls
Younger children adjust to stepfamilies within ____ years
(Sisters/brothers) more likely to be positive and supportive in stepfamilies
father involvment predicts math achievement for ___
father involvment predicts delayed sexual activity for ___
father involvment higher verbal skills for ___
boys and girls
if fathers are involved, kids are 80% less likely to...
...spend time in jail
3 correlates of play
emotion regulation, risk taking, increased confidence
________are a barrier to father involvement in childcare activities
Narrowly defined gender roles
Father involvement in childcare activities is most constant among _________
married men who share households with their children
Father involvement in childcare activities is least consistent with ______________
young, unmarried men who do not live with their children.
Quality of marital relations impacts _______ interactions and involvement more than it impacts __________interactions
father-child, mother-child
A ______ style of communication about adoption may facilitate healthier adjustmen
"acknowledgement of differences"
Silverman (1993) approximately ____% of preadolescent and younger children transracially adopted adjusted well in adopted home.
most foster parents are ____ class
lower middle
age of foster parents
foster parents are ___% European American ____% African American
55, 44
placements before 7 months avoids ______
disorganized attachment
____-____% of gay men are fathers
Non-gay fathers hold more of a traditional emphasis on ____ and ____
continuing family name and ensuring security in old age
_____ parents had more parenting awareness skills than ______ parents.
lesbian, hetero
_____ parents were more warm and positive than _____ parents
single, coupled
______ moms were more interactive with their children than ____ moms
lesbian, straight
main fear of children of gay parents
that others will think they are gay too
main fear of lesbian mothers
of losing their children
_______ are more likely than _________ to have child custody rights.
lesbian mothers, gay fathers
having a child before age 20 reduced the average educational attainment of AA, Cauc., & Asian females by ___ years
___% of teen moms in 1994 not wed
____ children for teen mothers vs. ____ for those who became mothers at 20 or 21
2.6, 2.0
SIDS is ___ times more common if the mother is under 15 years old
Children of moms under 15 receive health care for illness ____ as often as children of older moms
Children of moms under 15 see doc ____ times per year, while children of older moms see doc ____ times per year
2.3, 4.8
_______ and _____ was more predictive of cog outcomes at age 4 than ______.
shared parenting, SES, parental age
Children of teen moms ___% more likely to become teen parents by age 19.
Male children of teen parents at higher risk for _____ and _____ difficulties
speech, language
Female children of teen parents at higher risk for _____
_____ children of teen parents reported higher rates of school adjustment problems than _____ children of teen parents
Male, female
_____ children of teen parents reported higher rates of externalizing problems, while _____ children of teen parents showed higher internalizing
male, female